Spix’s Macaw heads list of first bird extinctions confirmed this decade
Eight bird species, including two species of macaw, look set to have their extinctions confirmed following a robust new assessment of Critically Endangered species. The findings reveal a worrying new trend: for the first time, mainland extinctions are outpacing island extinctions.
By Alex Dale
In the 2011 animated film Rio, Blu, a captive-raised Spix’s Macaw, arrives in Brazil to mate with the last-known wild member of his species a female named Jewel. But according to our latest paper, Blu was already 11 years too late – Jewel, the last of her kind, likely perished in or around 2000.
Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii is one of eight species primed to have their extinctions either confirmed or deemed highly likely, following a new study by BirdLife International. The eight-year study used a new statistical approach to analyse 51 Critically Endangered species, quantifying three factors at once: intensity of threats, timing and reliability of records, and the timing and quantity of search efforts for the species. Five of the eight confirmed or suspected extinctions took place on the South American continent, four of them in Brazil, reflecting the devastating effects of the high rate of deforestation in this part of the world.
“Ninety per cent of bird extinctions in recent centuries have been of species on islands” says Dr Stuart Butchart, BirdLife’s Chief Scientist and lead author on the paper. “However, our results confirm that there is a growing wave of extinctions sweeping across the continents, driven mainly by habitat loss and degradation from unsustainable agriculture and logging”.
Of the eight species, it was recommended that three species should be re-classified as Extinct; the Cryptic Treehunter Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti and Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi, two ovenbirds from North-east Brazil, and Poo-uli Melamprosops phaeosoma, formerly of Hawaii, which has not been seen in the wild since 2004 (the same year the last captive individual died). The data also suggests another four species should be reclassified as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct), a category that indicates that the species is highly likely to be extinct, but further search efforts are required before we can definitively rule it to be Extinct.
These species are New Caledonian Lorikeet Charmosyna diadema (last sighted in 1987), Javan Lapwing Vanellus macropterus (1994), Pernambuco Pygmy-owl Glaucidium mooreorum (2001) and another Brazilian macaw, Glaucous Macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus (1998).
“Ninety per cent of bird extinctions in recent centuries have been of species on islands. However, our results confirm that there is a growing wave of extinctions sweeping across the continents, driven mainly by habitat loss and degradation from unsustainable agriculture and logging”.
Dr Stuart Butchart, BirdLife’s Chief Scientist
Hope still persists for the Spix’s, however, despite the Brazilian endemic apparently being wiped out in the wild as a result of deforestation and other factors such as the creation of a dam and trapping for wild trade. An estimated population of between 60-80 persists in captivity, hence the suggested classification change to Extinct in the Wild. A lone sighting in 2016 sparked hope the species may persist in the wild, but it is now suspected to be an escapee from captivity. If so, it is sadly highly unlikely this Blu ever found his Jewel.
Found on the forest floors of peninsular Malaysia, rapid deforestation has destroyed much of the enigmatic Malay Peacock-pheasant’s habitat in recent decades, and the species was sadly uplisted to Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2022.
In 1980, only five Black Robins remained, restricted to one remote island in the Pacific. Despite being seemingly destined for extinction, an intensive conservation programme brought the species back from the brink, and less than 50 years later its remarkable recovery has seen it downlisted on the IUCN Red List.
Vast areas of forest are being cleared at an alarming rate and, as 2022’s IUCN Red List update reveals, deforestation is a key threat to many bird populations, especially in tropical regions. We look at some of the worst-affected areas, the threatened species that inhabit them, and the measures being put in place to try and tackle the problem.