List of Penguin Species
By Nick Askew
The list of penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) includes aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, members of the penguin familiy have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers.
Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their life on land and half in the oceans. Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.
Direct killing and taking of birds away from their natural environment can be a major contributor to the decline of some bird species. However, the scope and scale of Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Birds (IKB) remains largely unknown in sub-Sahara Africa. As a first step to better understand the threat, BirdLife International conducted a region-wide literature review between September 2020 and May 2021, with an aim of identifying the bird taxa & numbers affected, IKB methods, factors driving IKB and affected countries in sub-Sahara Africa.
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