List of Penguin Species
By Nick Askew
The list of penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) includes aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, members of the penguin familiy have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers.
Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their life on land and half in the oceans. Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.
The largest river in Lithuania, the Nemunas, was once the perfect habitat for the Little Tern (Sternula albifrons) and the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) with its abundant islands and sandy shores. Remarkably, up to 80% of Lithuania’s Little Tern population breeds on the bigger islands of the river. Properly managing these habitats, is essential for the survival of both species.
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