Technology design & Shut down on demand
There are different wind energy and power line technologies that vary in size and design which presents different types of threats to birds and other biodiversity. For example, low and medium voltage power lines are associated with electrocution and collision risks whereas high voltage power lines are associated with collision risks. There are tailored mitigation measures developed to address these that are based on the mitigation hierarchy, such as installing nests on power lines or shut down on demand for wind turbines. The success of mitigation measures is largely depended on the adequacy of baselines and monitoring approaches. Some mitigation measures may only be specific to a type of landscape feature or species. The effectiveness of a mitigation measures may also depend on the level of environmental protection a government provides in the form of legislative framework and implementation and transparency of information.
1. MSB Wind Farm guidelines: provides guidelines on various mitigation actions for wind energy developments pp.3-4
2. MSB Power Line guidelines: provides guidelines on various mitigation actions for power line developments p.4
2. CMS Renewable energy technology guidelines: provides guidelines on wind farm configuration pp.54-56
3. EUROBATS: provides guidelines various mitigation measures that can be applied to bats pp.40-51
4. MSB Shutdown on demand: provides a review and guidance on the use of “shutdown-on demand” for wind turbines to conserve migrating soaring birds in the Rift Valley/Red Sea Flyway
5. BESTGRID project handbook: Shows examples of possible power lines mitigation measures and their feasibility p.14.
6. AEWA Electricity Power Grids Guidelines: Guidelines on how to avoid or mitigate impact of electricity power grids on migratory birds in the African-Eurasian Region, including mitigating electrocution and collision impact.
1. Mitigation Hierarchy definition: The Biodiversity Consultancy provides an explanation of the Mitigation Hierarchy.
2. BirdLife International Extranet page: The Migratory Soaring Birds project provides a collection of further reading on Mitigation measures.
3. Synthesis by Swedish EPA: provides examples of the effect of wind power on birds and bats and measures to minimize impact pp.63-66
4. NABU Repowering wind farms: This study details the impacts of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats.