Baseline & Monitoring
Baselines and pre-construction baseline monitoring plans are one of the most important pieces of work in an environmental assessment process. These inform post-construction monitoring plans and what mitigation measures need to be taken, such as technology design and ‘shut-down on demand’. Monitoring information is important to verify whether mitigation solutions are working and for estimation of cumulative impacts of different developments on a single species. Monitoring should be performed before and after construction of the wind farm in a comparable way and monitoring should be performed within the wind farm area and in one or more control areas.
Reviewing and developing a Baseline
1. AEWA Guidelines on infrastructural developments and waterbirds: provides guidelines on how to review baseline and waterbird population assessments p.26
2. FNN-Guidelines on bird protection markers: Guideline is in German (DE) and provides information on how to develop bird protection markers.
3. MFI & CSBI Baseline guide: A comprehensive guide to developing a biodiversity baseline study prepared by Multilateral Financing Institutions and the Cross Sector Biodiversity Initiative.
4. Bat Surveys: a good practice guide for professional ecologists on conducting bat surveys.
1. IBAT for assessments of development proximity to biodiversity areas
Monitoring approaches and techniques
1. MSB Shutdown on demand: provides a review and guidance on the use of “shutdown-on demand” for wind turbines to conserve migrating soaring birds in the Rift Valley/Red Sea Flyway and provides a list of advantages and limitations of different radar systems used for monitoring pp.22-25
2. EUROBATS: provides guidelines on how to monitor various impacts on bats, including cumulative effects pp.32-39
4. Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines: provides two approaches for monitoring: carcass searches and surveys of animals prone to collisions.
5. Birdlife South Africa Guidance on Monitoring Wind Energy Impacts on Birds: detailed best practice guidance on how to monitor impacts of wind energy on birds.
6. RenewableUK Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA) Guidelines: guidance document aimed at planning and offshore wind industry professionals, which includes principles for effective monitoring.
2. Synthesis by Swedish EPA: provides examples of the effect of wind power on birds and bats and provides recommendations for pre and post construction surveys pp.129-131