- Africa (114)
- Americas (218)
- Archive (525)
- Asia (200)
- Australia (29)
- Europe & Central Asia (67)
- Illegal killing of birds (1)
- Middle East (42)
- Pacific (70)
- Species Group (164)
- Taxonomy (3)
- Uncategorized (3)
Five most recent topics
- Consultation on a subset of potential taxonomic changes to passerines
- Global IUCN Red List for birds – 2015 changes
- The taxonomic treatment of the Little Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis)/Audubon’s Shearwater (P. lherminieri) complex is being revised, and P. bryani is being recognised as a species: request for information
- Black-bellied Sandgrouse (Pterocles orientalis) – request for information from Central Asia
- Tessmann’s Flycatcher (Muscicapa tessmanni): List as Least Concern?
- African leaders step up fight against Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching April 29, 2016African governments have made a commitment towards addressing illegal wildlife trade in Africa by agreeing on an implementation road map for the African Strategy on Combating Illegal Exploitation and Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora in Africa. The landmark step was made during the Sixth Special Session of the African Ministerial Conference on the […]
- Say ‘no’ to extinction: saving Bristly and his fourteen companions April 28, 2016Stresemann’s Bristlefront Merulaxis stresemanni: a long-tailed bird with distinctive forehead bristles, a rufous rump, a musical whistle song, seen perhaps eating frogs and insects, and with a tennis-ball-sized tunnel for its nest. Spotted a handful of times since its rediscovery in Brazil’s Atlantic forest in 1995, that’s about all we know of this unique bird. […]
- The future of Caño Tiburones hangs on a thread April 27, 2016The wind in your hair, the sound of birds, you’re paddling down 30km of estuarine channels in Puerto Rico’s largest wetland. A unique mix of freshwater and saltwater producing a full variety of natural aromas from native plants. Trying to spot all 190 resident bird species, lost in the moment, you might not realise that […]
- African leaders step up fight against Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching April 29, 2016
Category Archives: Europe & Central Asia
Many thanks to all who contributed information and comments on this year’s reassessments. The 2015 Red List for birds was launched today, and the new assessments can be found at http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/search. You can read the BirdLife news story here: http://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/news/2015-red-list-vultures-shorebirds-and-other-iconic-species … Continue reading
The taxonomic treatment of the Little Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis)/Audubon’s Shearwater (P. lherminieri) complex is being revised, and P. bryani is being recognised as a species: request for information
BirdLife’s taxonomic treatment of the Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis/Audubon’s Shearwater P. lherminieri complex is being revised to reflect improved understanding of their taxonomy, and P. bryani (Pyle et al. 2011) is to be recognised as a species. Continue reading
Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis breeds in Iberia and NW Africa (including the Canary Islands), and from Turkey east through southern Central Asia to NW China, and south to Iran and Pakistan, with some birds wintering further south in the Middle … Continue reading
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) breeds in the North Atlantic, from NC Canada and NE USA east through Greenland to W & N Europe, and on to the Taymyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya, wintering south to the Sargasso Sea and W … Continue reading
Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica breeds in swampy boreal forests from Fennoscandia east through Siberia to NE Asia, and winters mainly in E Asia (Copete & Garcia 2014). It is currently listed as Least Concern, because when last assessed it was … Continue reading
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus breeds from Ukraine and SW Russia east through Kazakhstan to NW China and NW Mongolia (and irregularly farther N and W in Europe), and winters mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and S Asia (Orta & Christie 2015). … Continue reading
Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucura is a localised sedentary resident in rocky arid habitats in Iberia and NW Africa. It is currently listed as Least Concern, because when last assessed it was not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under … Continue reading
Red Knot (BirdLife factsheet) is a long-distance migrant shorebird, with six Arctic-breeding subspecies: C. c. canutus – CN Siberia, in Taymyr Peninsula and possibly Yakutia; winters in W & S Africa and S Asia. C. c. piersmai – New Siberian … Continue reading
Curlew Sandpiper (BirdLife factsheet) breeds across Arctic Siberia from the Yamal Peninsula to Kolyuchinskaya Gulf (N Chukotskiy Peninsula), and winters from sub-Saharan Africa through Middle East and S & SE Asia to Australasia (van Gils and Wiersma 1996). Globally, it … Continue reading
Bar-tailed Godwit (BirdLife factsheet) breeds across the Arctic from northern Europe through Siberia to Alaska, wintering along the coasts of western Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Globally, it has an extremely large … Continue reading
Razorbill Alca torda breeds in the temperate N Atlantic and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean, on both sides of the Atlantic, as far south as NW France, north as Svalbard and east to NW Russia, wintering along Atlantic coasts … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) – downlist from Endangered to Near Threatened?
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis breeds on the Siberian tundra, almost entirely within the Taymyr Peninsula, but also in the Gydan and Yamal Peninsulas, and winters in SE Europe and SW Asia, mainly on the north and west coasts of the … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Yelkouan Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) – downlist from Vulnerable to Least Concern?
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan is endemic to the Mediterranean and Black Seas, breeding from S France and E Algeria east to Greece and Bulgaria; breeding is also suspected in Turkey, but still not proven (Carboneras et al. 2014). It is … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Armenian Gull Larus armenicus breeds from the Caucasus through Armenia to W Turkey and NW Iran, and winters south to the E Mediterranean, N Red Sea and N Persian Gulf (Burger et al. 2015). It is currently listed as Least … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Audouin’s Gull (Larus audouinii) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii breeds on Mediterranean coasts, with its main breeding areas at the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) and Chafarinas Islands (off NE Morocco), and scattered colonies from Portugal, Morocco and Algeria east to the Aegean Sea, S Turkey … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) – uplist from Least Concern to Endangered?
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica breeds from NE & E Canada and NE USA east through Greenland to Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, and south to Iceland, Fennoscandia, Faroes, Britain, Ireland and NW France; it winters at sea, mostly in … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Common Eider Somateria mollissima is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America, eastern Siberia and southern Greenland. It breeds in the Arctic and northern temperate regions, but its range expands during winter to as far south as New … Continue reading
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus breeds in both the Palearctic (from Iceland and the Baltic to Kamchatka, wintering from the North Sea to the Caspian Sea and off E Asia) and the Nearctic (from C Alaska to C Canada and NW … Continue reading
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca breed in Scandinavia and Russia, east to the River Yenisey and south to Kazakhstan, with isolated populations in the Caucasus; it winters in the Baltic Sea and coastal W Europe, with some in the Black and … Continue reading
Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax breeds from Morocco and Iberia to France and Italy, and from Ukraine and SW Russia through Kazakhstan to NW China and N Iran, and winters from the Mediterranean zone through Turkey and Transcaucasia to Iran, and … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Caucasian Grouse (Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Caucasian Grouse Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi is endemic to the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains. It is currently listed as Near Threatened, because when last assessed it was projected to undergo a moderately rapid population decline owing to road construction for tourism … Continue reading
Redwing Turdus iliacus breeds from Iceland east through N & E Europe and across much of Siberia, and winters in W & S Europe, N Africa, around the Black and Caspian Sea basins and in adjacent SW Asia (Collar & … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Iberian Green Woodpecker (Picus sharpei) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Iberian Green Woodpecker Picus sharpei is endemic to Spain, Portugal, the Pyrenees and extreme SW France. It was recently elevated to full species status, having previously been considered conspecific with Eurasian Green Woodpecker P. viridis (del Hoyo & Collar 2014). … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus breeds from Europe, Turkey and NW Iran through W Russia and Kazakhstan to S & E Siberia, Mongolia and N China, and winters from W Europe, the E Atlantic islands and N Africa through the Mediterranean, … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: European Turtle-dove (Streptopelia turtur) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur is a widespread migrant breeder across much of central and southern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, wintering mainly in the Sahel zone of Africa. It is currently listed as Least Concern, because … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) – uplist from Least Concern to Vulnerable?
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus has a wide range comprising four flyway populations: H. o. ostralegus breeds from Iceland and Scandinavia east to NW Russia, south through Britain to NW France, with isolated populations in the Mediterranean, and winters on coasts … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Great Snipe (Gallinago media) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Great Snipe Gallinago media breeds from Scandinavia east through the Baltic States, Poland and into Russia as far as the River Yenisey (95°E), and winters in sub-Saharan Africa (Van Gils et al. 2013). It is currently listed as Near Threatened, … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Cinereous Bunting (Emberiza cineracea) – uplist from Near Threatened to Vulnerable?
Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea breeds in SW Iran, S Turkey and adjacent E Greek islands, and winters in Sudan, Eritrea and S Arabia (Madge 2011). It is currently listed as Near Threatened, because when last assessed its moderately small population … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: European Roller (Coracias garrulus) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
European Roller Coracias garrulus breeds in NW Africa, SW, SC, SE and E Europe, and in the Middle East, Arabia and C Asia to SW Siberia, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa (Fry et al. 2014). It is currently listed as Near … Continue reading
Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis breeds widely from Eastern Europe through Central Asia to the steppes of Mongolia, and winters in Africa and western Asia. It is currently considered Least Concern because of its large range and population; population trends are … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Krueper’s Nuthatch (Sitta krueperi) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Krueper’s Nuthatch Sitta krueperi is endemic to Europe, occurring from extreme E Greece (Lesbos) through Turkey to extreme SW Russia and S Georgia. It is currently listed as Near Threatened, because when last assessed it was suspected to have undergone … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Semi-collared Flycatcher (Ficedula semitorquata) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Semi-collared Flycatcher Ficedula semitorquata breeds in SE Europe, from the Balkans east through Turkey, and from the Caucasus and Transcaucasus south to N & NW Iran, and winters in EC Africa, from extreme S Sudan south to W Tanzania (Taylor … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus is endemic to Europe, breeding and wintering widely in the N and NW of the continent. It is currently listed as Least Concern, because when last assessed it was not thought to approach the thresholds … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Common Pochard Aythya ferina breeds from W Europe eastwards through C Asia (in band at 40–60° N) to SC Siberia and N China to 120° E, and winters south to N & E Africa, India and S & E Asia … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis is a widespread breeder in open habitats across much of central and northern Europe, wintering mainly in western and southern Europe, with some reaching coastal North Africa and the Middle East. It is currently listed as … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Black Lark (Melanocorypha yeltoniensis) – request for information from Central Asia
Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis breeds in SW Russia and N Kazakhstan, and winters south to the Black Sea, Caucasus, N Iran and southern Central Asia (Alström 2004). It is currently listed as Least Concern, because when last assessed it was … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is being split: request for information on C. diomedea and C. borealis
Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea is being split into C. diomedea and C. borealis, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010) and consultation of genetic evidence (Gómez-Díaz et al. 2009, Genovart et al. 2013). Continue reading
To suggest discussion of a species not listed in the forum, send a reply to this discussion. A moderator will assess the suitability of the topic and create a new topic if appropriate. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Lammergeier / Bearded Vulture* (Gypaetus barbatus): is it eligible for a higher threat category?
Data and observations regarding population trends and numbers throughout the species’s range are requested so that a comprehensive review of its global threat status can be carried out. In particular, information is needed from China and Mongolia, northern South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East (especially Iran), south-eastern Europe (especially Turkey) and East Africa. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is being split: list C. macqueenii as Vulnerable and C. undulata as Least Concern?
Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata is being split into C. undulata and C. macqueenii, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010). Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Fea’s Petrel (Pterodroma feae) is being split: list P. deserta as Vulnerable and P. feae as Near Threatened?
Fea’s Petrel Pterodroma feae is being split into P. feae and P. deserta, following published studies (e.g. Robb et al. 2008, Jesus et al. 2009), in particular highlighting differences between these taxa in breeding seasonality and vocalisations. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) is being split: list C. nivosus as Near Threatened, C. dealbatus as Data Deficient and C. alexandrinus as Least Concern?
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus is being split into C. alexandrinus, C. nivosus and C. dealbatus, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010). Continue reading
Final decisions have been reached on the 2013 forum consultations. These are subject to approval and ratification by the IUCN. Continue reading
The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2013 Red List update. Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Yellow-breasted Bunting Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola breeds across the northern Palaearctic from Finland, Belarus and Ukraine in the west, through Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, to far eastern Russia, Korea and northern Japan. In the autumn, birds stop … Continue reading
2011-2012 Forum topics Final decisions The attached spreadsheet lists the results of the 2012 forum consultations, subject to approval and ratification by IUCN. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. Any discussions of … Continue reading
2012 forum topics provisional decisions The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2012 Red List. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. There will now be a further final opportunity to make … Continue reading
Some such new data have been provided in recent publications by Moshkin (2010) and Levin (2011), who present past and present population sizes in the most important range states based on new data sources, particularly for local population trends. In comparison to the figures previously used by BirdLife, key differences in Moshkin’s (2010) estimates include higher estimates of 5,218 pairs in Kazakhstan and 6,500 pairs in Russia in 1990 and a lower estimate of 1,500 pairs in China in 2010. In addition, Levin (2011) gives a new present-day estimate of fewer than 1,000 pairs in Kazakhstan. We discuss these in turn below and consider their significance for the overall rate of decline, the calculation for which can be viewed in the spreadsheet attached. Continue reading
Despite on-going uncertainty about the size and trend of some national populations, a balanced assessment of the available evidence suggests that overall the population of this species is probably declining at a rate approaching 30% over 12 years (three generations). For this reason, it is proposed that the species be uplisted to Near Threatened. Comments on this proposal are welcome, as are any quantitative data that could further inform the assessment. Continue reading
To explore the impact of uncertainty on the overall trend and category, a number of alternative scenarios were also explored (see attached spreadsheet). When the trend assessments were re-run, only the most optimistic scenarios altered the potential Red List category (from Endangered to Vulnerable or Near Threatened), i.e. assuming Italy is experiencing the minimum decline rate and countries with unknown trends are stable.
This suggests that the species’s global status ought to be revised to Vulnerable under criterion A4b,c,d,e, as it is projected to suffer a rapid population reduction (30-49% decline over three generations). Comments on this proposal and any relevant information (particularly including trend information for additional countries) are invited. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax): what are the trends in Russia and Central Asia?
The Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax has a Palaearctic distribution and two geographically separated breeding populations: the western (found in the EU); and eastern (breeding in western and central Asia). It is currently classified as Near Threatened under criterion A on the IUCN Red List, because it is suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid global population decline approaching 30% over three generations. If the global population is suspected to be undergoing an overall decline at a rate of 30-49% in 30 years, the global status of Little Bustard would need to be revised to Vulnerable. To re-evaluate its status, more data are needed about the size and trends of populations in the east, particularly from Russia and Central Asia. Continue reading
Available information suggests that the species’s global status ought to be revised to Near Threatened under criterion C2a(ii), on the basis that it has a moderately small population, which may approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable, but which is not currently thought to be undergoing a continuing decline. Continue reading
Greater Scaup Aythya marila breeds in tundra and moorland in northernmost Europe, Asia and North America, and winters in shallow coastal waters and occasionally inland water bodies south of its breeding grounds. The species is currently listed as Least Concern on the basis that it was not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data collected since the mid-1960s suggests that an annual population change of -3.4% has occurred across c.85% of the species’s range in North America, indicating a 75% decline between 1965-1966 and 2005-2006 (Butcher and Niven 2007), and suggesting a decline of c.57% over the last three generations.
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis is a widespread circumpolar species that breeds mainly in the Arctic tundra and winters generally to the south, mainly far offshore. It is currently listed as Least Concern because it was not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN Red List criteria. Taking the 27-year decline rates calculated for the Baltic and North American populations, and assuming that the two other smaller populations have remained stable, the species’s global population may be declining at a rate of more than 50% over three generations, which would qualify the species for uplisting to Endangered under criterion A.
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Taxonomic changes in the genus Melanitta, part II: suggestions to list M. fusca as Endangered and M. deglandi as Least Concern, and request for information on M. stejnegeri
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca has been split into M. fusca, M. deglandi and M. stejnegeri following a review of recent literature (Livezey 1995, Garner et al. 2004, Sangster et al. 2005, Collinson et al. 2006, AOU 2010) and museum specimens by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Further information is requested and comments are invited on whether the population of M. fusca is likely to have declined at a rate equivalent to 50-79% over the past three generations, and thus whether it qualifies for listing as Endangered under criterion A. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Taxonomic changes in the genus Melanitta, part I: suggestion to list M. nigra as Vulnerable and request for information on M. americana
Black Scoter Melanitta nigra has been split into M. nigra and M. americana following a review of recent literature (Livezey 1995, Garner et al. 2004, Sangster et al. 2005, Collinson et al. 2006, AOU 2010) and museum specimens by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Further information is requested on population trends in these two newly-split species and comments are invited on whether the population of M. nigra is likely to have declined at a rate equivalent to at least 30% over the past three generations, and thus if it qualifies for listing as at least Vulnerable under criterion A. Continue reading
Asian Desert Sparrow Passer zarudnyi has been split from Desert Sparrow P. simplex. Data are lacking on this species’s distribution and population size, and little is known about potential threats. In addition, data are required on the species’s population trend, which is difficult to judge owing to its apparently nomadic movements and the possibility that the species has always been rare. Further information on the species would be welcomed. Continue reading
The discussion period for the 2011 Red List has now finished and final decisions have been taken – these decisions will be incorporated into the 2011 Red List, which will be released by BirdLife in May 2011, and by IUCN … Continue reading
The attached spreadsheets list the draft decisions for the 2011 IUCN Red List. There is now a final opportunity for comments on these proposals prior to a final deadline of 21 February 2011. Africa 2010-2011 Americas 2010-2011 Asia 2010-2011 Europe … Continue reading
Madeira Laurel Pigeon Columba trocaz is currently classified as Near Threatened, however implementation of conservation measures has led to a significant recovery of the species’s population and range such that it no longer approaches the Red List thresholds to be considered as threatened. It is therefore proposed to revise its status to Least Concern Continue reading
Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea is currently listed as Near Threatened, however an increase in the species’s range on Tenerife strongly suggests that its overall population size has also increased. Notwithstanding the precarious state of the Gran Canaria subspecies, this suggests that the global status of the species ought to be revised to Least Concern. Continue reading
Archived 2010-2011 topics: Fuerteventura Stonechat (Saxicola dacotiae): reclassify as Near Threatened or Least Concern?
Fuerteventura Stonechat Saxicola dacotiae is currently listed as Endangered, however a revised population estimate, improved knowledge of its habitat preferences, and lack of any evidence for overall decline, suggest that the global status of the species ought to be revised to either Near Threatened or Least Concern. Continue reading
Archived 2010-2011 topics: White-tailed Laurel Pigeon (Columba junoniae): downlist to Near Threatened or Least Concern?
White-tailed Laurel Pigeon Columba junoniae is currently listed as Endangered, However, data collated in 2010 show that its Area of Occupancy (and presumably its population) has increased in the last 20 years and its global status may best be revised to Near Threatened or Least Concern. Continue reading
Dark-tailed Laurel Pigeon Columba bollii is currently classified as Near Threatened, however in recent years the extent and quality of the species’s habitat have continued to show positive trends. This suggests that the global status of this species ought to be revised to Least Concern. Continue reading
Archived 2010-2011 topics: Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni): downlist to Near Threatened or Least Concern?
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni is currently listed as Vulnerable, however since the 1990s the species’s breeding population has been stable or increased in south-western Europe and since c. 2000 its population in Europe, Russia and Central Asia is suspected to have been stable or even slightly increasing. This suggests that its global status ought to be revised to either Near Threatened or Least Concern. Continue reading
Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis breeds widely from Eastern Europe through Central Asia to the steppes of Mongolia. It winters in Africa and western Asia and is currently considered Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its large range and population. While population trends have not been assessed for the global population, anecdotal sources suggest it is declining. To ascertain global trends data are needed from the Asian breeding grounds and African wintering grounds. Comments on likely population trends are invited. Continue reading
Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga is currently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. No comprehensive assessment of the species’s population size globally or population trends in different parts of its range exists; however, given the species’s massive global range it is highly plausible that its population exceeds 10,000 mature individuals (the threshold for listing as VU under criterion C) and may warrant downlisting. Information about the species’s population size and declines are requested to improve our assessment of its global status. Continue reading