Bare-throated Bellbird is endemic to the Atlantic forest (Snow and Sharpe 2016). It is found in eastern Brazil, north-eastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. The species is listed as Vulnerable under A2cd+3cd+4cd. The population is provisionally estimated at 2,500-9,999 mature individuals and a rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss and trapping for the cage-bird trade.
The population has unquestionably declined owing to deforestation and heavy trapping pressure for the cage-bird trade, particularly in Brazil (Brooks et al. 1993, Tobias et al. 1993, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, M. Guimarães Diniz in litt. 2003). Trapping pressure may be particularly heavy in southern Bahia, São Paulo and Santa Catarina and the population size is therefore difficult to assess in these areas (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). Numerous individuals were seen in cages between Serra das Lontras and Una Biological Reserve, southern Bahia (A. C. De Luca in litt. 2007). In north-east Paraguay deforestation was 20% between 1997 and 2001, and appears to be continuing at a similar rate. The Paraguayan population is also coming under increasing pressure from trapping (historically a localised threat), with both males and females readily available in Asunción every year. Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threatened its habitat (Fearnside 1996). Key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).
In the Brazilian Red List assessment for birds (MMA 2014) this species is listed as Near Threatened.
Information on the species’s population size and trends in Paraguay and Argentina is sought. Is the population size reduction likely to be <30% over 14 years (three generations)?
The species was previously considered Near Threatened but was uplisted to Vulnerable in 2004 owing to increased awareness of rapid rates of habitat destruction and trapping pressure (Snow and Sharpe 2016). Based on the Brazilian Red List assessment of this species, should the species now be considered Near Threatened globally? Confirmation that the rate of population reduction is likely to be <30% over 14 years could qualify the species for downlisting to Near Threatened under criterion A2cd+3cd+4cd.
Comments on the proposed downlisting are welcome.
Brooks, T. M.; Barnes, R.; Bartrina, L.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Clay, R. P.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Etcheverry, N. I.; Lowen, J. C.; Vincent, J. 1993. Bird surveys and conservation in the Paraguayan Atlantic forest: Project CANOPY ’92 final report. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.) The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.
MMA (2014) Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de Extinção. Portaria No 444, de 17 de dezembro de 2014. Diário Oficial da União – Seção 1. Nº 245, quinta-feira, 18 de dezembro de 2014.
Snow, D. & Sharpe, C.J. (2016). Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Tobias, J. A.; Catsis, M. C.; Williams, R. S. R. 1993. Notes on scarce birds observed in southern and eastern Brazil: 24 July – 7 September 1993.