Archived 2014 discussion: Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) is being split: list P. obscura as Critically Endangered, P. dextralis as Endangered and P. viridis as Vulnerable?

The initial deadline for comments on this topic is 28 April 2014, and therefore later than for most other topics currently under discussion.

This is part of a consultation on the Red List implications of extensive changes to BirdLife’s taxonomy for non-passerines

Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International will soon publish the HBW-BirdLife Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World, building off the Handbook of the Birds of the World series, and BirdLife’s annually updated taxonomic checklist.

The new Checklist will be based on the application of criteria for recognising species limits described by Tobias et al. (2010). Full details of the specific scores and the basis of these for each new taxonomic revision will be provided in the Checklist.

Following publication, an open and transparent mechanism will be established to allow people to comment on the taxonomic revisions or suggest new ones, and provide new information of relevance in order to inform regular updates. We are also actively seeking input via a discussion topic here regarding some potential taxonomic revisions that currently lack sufficient information.

The new Checklist will form the taxonomic basis of BirdLife’s assessments of the status of the world’s birds for the IUCN Red List. The taxonomic changes that will appear in volume 1 of the checklist (for non-passerines) will begin to be incorporated into the 2014 Red List update, with the remainder, and those for passerines (which will appear in volume 2 of the checklist), to be incorporated into subsequent Red List updates.

Preliminary Red List assessments have been carried out for the newly split or lumped taxa. We are now requesting comments and feedback on these preliminary assessments.

Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis is being split into P. viridis, P. dextralis and P. obscura, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010).

Prior to the taxonomic change, P. viridis (BirdLife species factsheet) was listed as Endangered under criterion A3c, on the basis that it was suspected to undergo a very rapid population decline of 50-79% over three generations, based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006), and factoring in the species’s susceptibility to hunting (following methods by Bird et al. 2011). According to the model of forest loss, the species was suspected to lose 30.4-51.3% of suitable habitat within its distribution over 31 years (estimate of three generations, based on an estimated generation length of 10.4 years) from 2002.

The pre-split species was characterised as inhabiting dense lowland rainforest and only occurring in areas away from human settlement (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The primary threat to the species was deemed to be accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin, driven by land clearance for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011), with declines also resulting from hunting pressure (del Hoyo et al. 1996, A. Lees in litt. 2011).

P. dextralis (incorporating interjecta) is endemic to Brazil, occurring between the Rio Tapajós and Rio Tocantins, with its northern limit at Portel and southern limit at the Rio Sete de Setembro (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Oppenheimer and Silveira 2009, Ribas et al. 2012).

It is projected to lose c.32-54% of its extent of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (which accounts for c.98% of its global extent of suitable habitat) over 31 years, as projected after 2002 using a model of forest loss in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

By taking the pessimistic (business as usual) scenario of forest loss and factoring in the species’s susceptibility to hunting, fragmentation and edge-effects (following Bird et al. 2011), it is suspected to decline by 62.3% over three generations from 2002. This suggests that the species qualifies as Endangered under criterion A4cd; however, information is requested on whether the species could also qualify for this category under criterion C, on the basis of a small population size (of fewer than 2,500 mature individuals).

P. obscura is endemic to Brazil, being known from north-eastern Pará and north-western Maranhão, ranging from east of the Rio Tocantins to Buriticupu (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Oppenheimer and Silveira 2009, Ribas et al. 2012). It has been stated that it qualifies as Critically Endangered and that it now persists only in a few large forest patches (Lees et al. 2013).

This species is projected to lose 77-88% of its extent of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (which accounts for c.88% of its global extent of suitable habitat) over 31 years, as projected after 2002 using a model of forest loss in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

By taking the pessimistic (business as usual) scenario of forest loss and factoring in the species’s susceptibility to hunting, fragmentation and edge-effects (following Bird et al. 2011), it is suspected to decline by 87% over three generations from 2002. This suggests that it qualifies as Critically Endangered under criterion A4cd; however, it may also qualify as Critically Endangered under criterion C, if it is thought to number fewer than 250 mature individuals.

P. viridis (as defined following the taxonomic change) occurs in Brazil, between the Rio Madeira and Rio Tapajós, and ranges into extreme north-eastern Bolivia (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Oppenheimer and Silveira 2009, Ribas et al. 2012). Its northern limit is at Parintins, Amazonas, and southern limit in Brazil is at Águas do Guaporé, Rondônia (Oppenheimer and Silveira 2009).

This species is projected to lose c.26-39% of its extent of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (which accounts for c.92% of its global extent of suitable habitat) over 31 years, as projected after 2002 using a model of forest loss in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

By taking the pessimistic (business as usual) scenario of forest loss and factoring in the species’s susceptibility to hunting, fragmentation and edge-effects (following Bird et al. 2011), it is suspected to decline by 46.0% over three generations from 2002. This suggests that the species qualifies as Vulnerable under criterion A4cd; however, information is requested on whether the species could also qualify for this or a higher threat category under criterion C, on the basis of a small population size.

Comments are invited and further information would be welcomed.

References:

Bird, J. P., Buchanan, G. M., Lees, A. C., Clay, R. P., Develey. P. F., Yépez, I. and Butchart, S. H. M. (2011) Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions DOI: 10.1111/j.1472 4642.2011.00843.x. http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/ddi.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (1996) Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions.

Lees, A. C., de Moura, N. G., Dantas, S. M. and Thompson, I. (2013) Capital Birding: Belém, Pará, Brazil. Neotropical Birding 13:32–42.

Oppenheimer, M. and Silveira, L. F. (2009) A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoololgia 49(41): 547–555.

Ribas, C. C., Aleixo, A., Nogueira, A. C. R., Miyaki, C. Y. and Cracraft, J. (2012) A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 681–689.

Soares-Filho, B. S., Nepstad, D. C., Curran, L. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Garcia, R. A., Ramos, C. A., Voll, E., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P. and Schlesinger, P. (2006) Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440: 520–523.

Tobias, J. A., Seddon, N., Spottiswoode, C. N., Pilgrim, J. D., Fishpool, L. D. C. and Collar, N. J. (2010) Quantitative criteria for species delimitation. Ibis 152: 724–746.

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3 Responses to Archived 2014 discussion: Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) is being split: list P. obscura as Critically Endangered, P. dextralis as Endangered and P. viridis as Vulnerable?

  1. I would be surprised if there were more than a couple of hundred obscura left, the species is restricted to large patches of undisturbed or lightly-logged forest in the Amazonian interfluve with the least forest cover, we (Lees et al. 2012) found this species only in the most pristine patch of forest in the municipality of Paragominas (2 Mha) and Portes et al. (2011) also found the species infrequently in the same region. It is long extinct in the northern portion of the interfluve (e.g. Moura et al. 2014) and likely now occurs in two disjunct blocks – centered on the Gurupi reserve (under threat from degazetting) and western Paragominas (not a reserve). The species is absent from extensive forest fragments around Moju-Tailandia.

    Lees, A. C., Moura, N. G., Santana, A., Aleixo, A., Barlow, J., Berenguer, E., … & Gardner, T. A. (2012). Paragominas: a quantitative baseline inventory of an eastern Amazonian avifauna. Rev. Bras. Ornit, 20, 93-118.
    http://www.ararajuba.org.br/sbo/ararajuba/artigos/Volume202/rbo202art2.pdf

    Lima, D. M., & Raices, D. S. L. (2012). Primeiro registro de Psophia obscura Pelzeln, 1857 e Dendrocincla merula badia Zimmer, 1934 para a Reserva Biológica do Gurupi, Maranhão, Brasil. Ornithologia, 5(1), 39-42.

    Portes, C. E. B.; Carneiro, L. S.; Schunck, F.; Silva, M. S. S.; Zimmer, K. J.; Whittaker, A.; Poletto, F.; Silveira, L. F. and Aleixo. A. 2011. Annotated checklist of birds recorded between 1998 and 2009 at nine areas in the Belém area of endemism, with notes on some range extensions and the conservation status of endangered species. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19: 167-184

  2. Andy Symes says:

    Preliminary proposals

    Based on available information, our preliminary proposals for the 2014 Red List would be to treat:

    P. obscura as Critically Endangered under criteria A4cd; C2a(ii)

    P. dextralis as Endangered under criterion A4cd

    P. viridis as Vulnerable under criterion A4cd.

    There is now a period for further comments until the final deadline of 14 May, after which recommended categorisations will be put forward to IUCN.

    The final Red List categories will be published on the BirdLife and IUCN websites in mid-2014, following further checking of information relevant to the assessments by both BirdLife and IUCN.

  3. Andy Symes says:

    Recommended categorisations to be put forward to IUCN

    Following further review, there have been no changes to our preliminary proposals for the 2014 Red List status of these species.

    The final categorisations will be published in mid-2014, following further checking of information relevant to the assessments by BirdLife and IUCN.

Comments are closed.