email a friend
printable version
Golden Parakeet Guaruba guarouba
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 246,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6600-13400 medium Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 6600-13400 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -
Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals, based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. However, recent information suggests the population may be larger than this. The species has been recorded at several additional locations (Laranjeiras and Cohn-Haft 2009), and a recent survey along the Tapajós river by Laranjeiras (2011) indicated that it was as common in the study area as other, non-threatened Psittacids. The population in this study area (a strip of c.340 km along the Tapajós river, western Pará), which encompasses no more than 5% of the total area of suitable habitat for the species, was estimated at 500 individuals, representing the largest known population. A highly conservative extrapolation of 1 individual per 16 km2 across 174,000 km2 of suitable habitat within the known Extent of Occurrence gives an estimate of c.10,875 individuals (Laranjeiras 2011). On the basis of this information, the population is placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 individuals, assumed to include c.6,600-13,400 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species is suspected to lose 23.3-30.9% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (22 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over the next three generations. It should be noted, however, that this may be rather precautionary, as trapping of this species for trade (although extensive in the past) is no longer thought to have a significant impact on the wild population (L. F. Silveira in litt. 2012, A. C. Lees in litt. 2013). In addition, its level of forest-dependence is regarded as not as high as some non-threatened Psittacids in the region (A. C. Lees in litt. 2013).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Brazil Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Brazil Baixo Rio Xingu site factsheet
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel site factsheet
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo site factsheet
Brazil Gurupi site factsheet
Brazil Jamanxim / Altamira site factsheet
Brazil Jamari site factsheet
Brazil Ji-Paraná / Roosevelt site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Amazônia site factsheet
Brazil Rio Capim site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Guaruba guarouba. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size 6600-13400 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 246,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species