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Southern Bristle-tyrant Phylloscartes eximius

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Pogonotriccus eximius Collar and Andrew (1988)

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes eximius occurs in south-east Brazil (Espírito Santo, central Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina, north Rio Grande do Sul, south Mato Grosso do Sul), north-east Argentina (Misiones) and east Paraguay (Canevari et al. 1991, Sick 1993, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996). It is principally concentrated in the Paraná basin, having disappeared from São Paulo state (despite tracts of habitat remaining) (Willis and Oniki 1993), but more northerly populations were perhaps historically marginal (Lowen et al. 1996). It is locally common in Paraguay and Argentina, but suggestions that it favours more open forest and may benefit from selective logging (Lowen et al. 1996) are unfounded (R. P. Clay in litt. 2000).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits lowland and montane humid forest and forest borders, including forest dominated by Araucaria, to 1,800 m.

Threats
Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threatened its lowland habitats (Fearnside 1996). Current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995). However, montane Atlantic forest has suffered less habitat destruction than adjacent lowlands, and its occurrence at these higher altitudes suggests that large tracts of habitat remain.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Iguaçu and Serra da Canastra National Parks and Mata dos Godoy State Park, Brazil; Caaguazú, San Rafael and Ybycuí National Parks, Estancia Itabó Private Nature Reserve and Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve, Paraguay; and Iguazú National Park, Argentina. Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Use habitat loss data from mapping to give estimate of declines.

References
Canevari, M. 1991. Nueva guia de las aves Argentinas. Fundación Acindar, Buenos Aires.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Willis, E. O.; Oniki, Y. 1993. New and reconfirmed birds from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with notes on disappearing species. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113: 23-34.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Babarskas, M., Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Clay, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes eximius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author (Temminck, 1822)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,010,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species