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Bay-ringed Tyrannulet Phylloscartes sylviolus

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss. Further data on these declines may lead to it being uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Leptotriccus sylviolus Collar and Andrew (1988)

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes sylviolus is scarce in south-east Brazil (Espírito Santo and south Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina), north-east Argentina (Misiones) and east Paraguay (Canindeyú south to Itapúa) (Canevari et al. 1991, Sick 1993, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Lowen et al. 1996, Clay et al. 1998).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going decline is suspected owing to rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It principally inhabits forest canopy in lowland Atlantic forest (below 300 m) (R. P. Clay in litt. 2000), but is encountered in small groups at forest edge, and has been observed in palms and dead trees adjacent to forest (Clay et al. 1998). At one site in Brazil, it has been recorded only in edges, secondary and selectively logged forest (Aleixo and Galetti 1997). Information on nesting is provided by Kirwan et al. (2010).


Threats
Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threatened its habitat (Fearnside 1996). Current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas, including Iguaçu National Park and Mata dos Godoy and Intervales State Parks, Brazil; Iguazú National Park in Argentina; and Estancia Itabó Private Nature Reserve, Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve and Caaguazú and San Rafael National Parks in Paraguay (del Hoyo et al. 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Use habitat loss data from mapping to give estimate of declines.

References
Aleixo, A.; Galetti, M. 1997. The conservation of the avifauna in a lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil. Bird Conservation International 7: 235-261.

Canevari, M. 1991. Nueva guia de las aves Argentinas. Fundación Acindar, Buenos Aires.

Clay, R. P.; Capper, D. R.; Mazar Barnett, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Fariña, R.; Kennedy, C. P.; Perrens, M.; Pople, R. G. 1998. White-winged Nightjars Caprimulgus candicans and cerrado conservation: the key findings of project Aguará Ñu 1997. Cotinga: 52-56.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2004. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 9: Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.

Kirwan, G. M., Bodrati, A. and Cockle, K. 2010. The nest of the Bay-ringed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes sylviolus), a little-known Atlantic Forest endemic, supports a close relationship between Phylloscartes and Pogonotriccus. Ornitologia Neotropical 21: 397-408.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Babarskas, M., Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Clay, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes sylviolus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author (Cabanis & Heine, 1859)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 435,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species