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Norfolk Island Parakeet Cyanoramphus cookii

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v);C2a(ii) 
Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii);D 
Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii);D1+2 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Critically Endangered
2008 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 5 good
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 51-249 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -
Population justification: An extrapolation based on banding and likely survivorship suggested that in 2008 the species had a population of 150-200 individuals (P. Olsen in litt. in Garnett et al. 2011), and a population of >240 individuals was estimated in 2009 based on 13 pairs recorded at point counts (G. Dutson pers. obs., in Garnett et al. 2011). The number of mature individuals is uncertain but is likely to be <250 (Garnett et al. 2011) and is placed here in the band 50-249 mature individuals.
Trend justification: Following a low of just 32 birds in 1988, the population increased rapidly to 200-300 individuals in 2005 owing to conservation management measures (R. Ward in litt. 2005). However, recent observations of disappearance from places where once common and evidence of cat predation suggest the population may be declining again (Garnett et al. 2011).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major resident
Shrubland Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Psittacine Circoviral Disease (PCD) (Circoviridae) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cyanoramphus cookii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Gray, 1859)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 12 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species