This species is currently known from only one locality, where habitat is declining in extent and quality such that its tiny population must certainly be dwindling. Because of this alarming situation it is classified as Critically Endangered.
Rozendaal, F. G.; Lambert, F. R. 1999. The taxomonic and conservation status of Pinarolestes sanghirensis Oustalet 1881. Forktail 15: 1-13.
Colluricincla megarhyncha (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into C. megarhyncha and C. sanghirensis following Rozendaal and Lambert (1999).
Distribution and populationColluricincla sanghirensis
17 cm. Medium-sized, drab, thrush-like passerine. Olive-brown above, more chestnut on shoulders and lower back. Paler brownish below, more rufous on belly. Strong black bill and legs. Similar spp. Golden Bulbul Ixos affinis platenae is larger, more olive-green above, yellow on throat and belly. Voice Loud drongo-like song of c.10 second phrases containing much repetition. Also soft, lisping chweep ...chweep.
is endemic to the island of Sangihe, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia
, where it was only known from one historical specimen collected in the late 19th century until its rediscovery in 1995. It occurs on the mountains Gunung Sahendaruman and Gunung Sahengbalira, where the total population is likely to be extremely low (possibly under 100 birds) given the tiny area of remaining habitat. In 2009, reports suggested that numbers of this species were in serious decline owing to forest loss (Sykes 2009)
. Population justification
The population size is likely to be extremely low (possibly fewer than 100 birds) given the tiny area of remaining habitat. It is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals, equating to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.Trend justification
This species is suspected to be declining owing to on-going forest loss within its restricted range. In 2009, reports suggested that numbers of this species were in serious decline owing to forest clearance (Sykes 2009). Ecology
It is resident in lower montane forest between 600 m and 750 m, occurring singly, and perhaps more frequently in small groups, in the middle and upper forest storeys, and also in dense rattan undergrowth. One boulder-strewn slope where birds were observed in 1996 was dominated by huge ginger-like plants (possibly Zingiberaceae), and in an area with a high density of large Pandanus
sp. palms. Threats
Original forest on Sangihe has been almost completely converted to agriculture. The largest habitat tract in which the species has been observed is a mere 225-340 ha in size, and is undergoing clearance by shifting cultivators in its lower reaches. In 2009, it was reported that new government initiatives to plant alien tree species were resulting in the clearance of native forest (Sykes 2009)
. At first, planting was restricted to areas below 500 m; however, more recent reports indicate that planting is now taking place at higher elevations, in areas at 700-900 m (Sykes 2009)
. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data)
. Conservation Actions Underway
The Gunung Sahendaruman "protection forest" nominally conserves some remaining habitat, although few measures have been taken to ensure its efficacy. Further forest is protected as watershed for a hydroelectric scheme in the Kentuhang valley. Since 1995, the "Action Sampiri" project has been working for biodiversity conservation in Sangihe and Talaud, conducting fieldwork, conservation awareness programmes (including village and school meetings, distribution of leaflets etc.), and developing ideas for future land-use through agreements between interested parties (local people, local government, forestry officials and timber companies). As a result, it was planned to reclassify the existing 4 km2
of "protection forest" on Gunung Sahengbalira as a wildlife reserve, although this process was due to take 2-3 years. The Wildlife Conservation Society has also worked on the island since 2007 trying to promote sympathetic land use and development by villages surrounding Gunung Sahengbalira (N. Brickle in litt.
. A local resident and former bird guide is monitoring the loss of native forest for plantations of exotic tree species and trying to raise awareness of the threat this poses to C. sanghirensis
(Sykes 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species in remaining forest patches on the island (e.g. Gunung Awu). Ensure effective protection of habitat on Gunung Sahendaruman. Support proposals for the rapid gazetting of remaining forest on Gunung Sahengbalira as a strict nature reserve. Continue education programmes emphasising the value of forest cover to water retention and the benefits of sound farming practices on already cleared slopes. Encourage forestry staff to establish a permanent presence on the island. Lobby against government initiatives that encourage the clearance of native forest for plantations of exotic tree species.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Sykes, B. 2009. OBC conservation: news update and requests for practical help. BirdingASIA 12: 107-108.
Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.
Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
Brickle, N., Pangimangen, W.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Colluricincla sanghirensis. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 07/12/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 07/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species