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Malherbe's Parakeet Cyanoramphus malherbi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2bce 
Endangered A2bce;B1ab(i,ii,iv,v);D1+2 
Vulnerable A2bce;B1ab(i,ii,iv,v);D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass 46.7 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 360 medium
Number of locations 3 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 medium Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 7 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -
Population justification: Although the population numbered several hundreds prior to 2000, a prolific increase in the population of rats and stoats within its restricted South Island range induced a rapid population decline and the total population has remained well below its previous levels. Successful translocations on four islands have boosted the population of this species, but decreases may have continued on the mainland. Overall, the global population may have numbered 290-690 individuals in early 2013, with the mainland populations estimated to total 130-270 individuals and the island populations totalling 160-420 individuals, although obtaining accurate population estimates is extremely challenging for the species (J. C. Kearvell in litt. 2013). Although the species is a precocious breeder that is capable of nesting at an early age, it is still uncertain what proportion of the birds now present on Chalky Island, Maud Island, Tuhua and Blumine have bred successfully and can therefore be classified as mature individuals. Accordingly, the number of mature individuals is precautionarily retained as 50-249, and the number of individuals placed in the band 250-999.
Trend justification: The population fell from 500-700 birds prior to 2000, to 100-200 by 2004. Increased conservation efforts (especially predator control) in its small South Island range and a successful translocation of birds to four islands suggest its rapid decline has ceased and some recovery has taken place. However, 2013 estimates suggest further declines on the mainland, and during a three generation (14 year) period the species has still experienced a reduction in the number of mature individuals, which is precautionarily estimated to have been extremely rapid, as latest population estimates include an unknown but potentially significant proportion of non-mature individuals (translocated birds yet to have bred).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
New Zealand Native Extant       Yes

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Common Brushtail (Trichosurus vulpecula) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cow (Bos taurus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Stoat (Mustela erminea) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cyanoramphus malherbi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Souancé, 1857
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 360 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species