email a friend
printable version
VU
Restinga Tyrannulet Phylloscartes kronei

Justification
This species probably has a small population, which is fragmented and rapidly declining in response to extensive habitat loss and is therefore considered Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
12 cm. Small, greenish flycatcher. Dull green upperparts with darker crown. Faint yellowish eyebrow. Thin, blackish eye-stripe and post-auricular crescent. Yellowish underparts, deeper on belly with greenish wash across chest. Dusky wings and tail. Pale yellowish wing-bars, fringing and tertial spots. Inconspicuous greenish fringing on tail. Dark bill with flesh-coloured mandible. Similar spp. Similar to allopatric Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet P. ventralis. Voice Common call is strident and high-pitched plea-ee or tlI-i. Song is fast and twittering sit-it-it-it ...

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes kronei occurs in coastal São Paulo (from the rio Ribeira floodplain south (Willis and Oniki 1992), Parana, Santa Catarina and at two localities in extreme north-east Rio Grande do Sul (Bencke et al. 2000, G. A. Bencke in litt. 2000), Brazil. Recent fieldwork suggests that it is distributed throughout sandplain forest within its limited range, and that it can be locally not uncommon (Willis and Oniki 1992).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It inhabits woodland edge, second growth and scrubby woodlands in sandy coastal restingas and adjacent riverine forest (Willis and Oniki 1992). At least in the breeding season, it apparently prefers swampy areas with standing water (Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995). It feeds on small insects by sallying and gleaning, sporadically associating with mixed-species flocks (Gussoni 2008). The diet consists mainly of arthropods, especially Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, with some fruit, mainly of Clusia criuva and Ternstroemia brasiliensis (Gussoni 2010). Pairs seem to maintain small territories spaced 100-200 m from their neighbours (Willis and Oniki 1992). It breeds in the austral spring: nest building takes place in September and October, and fledged young are observed being fed by their parents in November and December (Willis and Oniki 1992, Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995, Gussoni 2010). An oven-shaped nest, comprised of lichens and moss, has been described, situated 1.3 m from the ground in a low bush. It contained two young (Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995).


Threats
There is rapid and on-going clearance of suitable habitat for beachfront dwellings, notably on Ilha Comprida, and future pressure on restingas are likely to be great. Fires, started deliberately or accidentally, are also a threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in 11 protected areas (C. O. A. Gussoni in litt. 2012), including Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Environmental Protection Area; Ilha do Cardoso State Park, where there is little suitable habitat; Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, including the recently added 10,000 ha Banhados de Iguape area (P. Develey and A. C. De Luca in litt. 2007), and Ilha do Superagüi National Park (Wege and Long 1995). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to ascertain and monitor its status. Ensure the de facto protection of reserves where it occurs, especially in the south-west of Ilha Comprida.

References
Bencke, G. A.; Kindel, A.; Mähler, J. K. F. 2000. Adiçoes à avifauna de Mata Atlântica do Rio Grande do Sul. In: Alves, M.A.S.; da Silva, J.M.C.; Van Sluys, M.; Bergallo, H.G.; Rocha, C.F.D. (ed.), A ornitologia no Brasil: pesquisa atual, conservaçao e perspectivas, pp. 317-323. Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia, Brasilia.

Gussoni, C. O. A. 2010. Novas informações sobre a histã³ria natural da maria-da-restinga (Phylloscartes kronei) (Aves, Tyrannidae). Instituto de Biociências do Campus de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista.

Remold, H. G.; Ramos, N., MB. 1995. A nest of the Restinga Tyrannulet Phylloscartes kronei. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 115: 239-240.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Willis, E. O.; Oniki, Y. 1992. A new Phylloscartes (Tyrannidae) from southeastern Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 112: 158-165.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R. & Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Bencke, G., De Luca, A., Develey, P. & Gussoni, C.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes kronei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Restinga tyrannulet (Phylloscartes kronei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author Willis & Oniki, 1992
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species