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Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,290,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,290,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number anywhere between 0.2-2 million individuals (R. Greenberg in litt. 2006).
Trend justification: Two sources provide quantitative estimates of decline for the species: Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Counts (CBC). Sauer et al. (2005) provide an estimate for annual declines for a 39 year period of 12.5% per year, derived from BBS data. The estimated trend for the period 1996-2005 is a 1.8% decline per year, equating to a 16.6% decline over ten years. The CBC returns an estimated global decline for this period of 5.1% per year (CI = 2.4- 6.7%) which corresponds to a decline of 40.8% over the past decade. Interpreting the two estimates, the population is believed to have declined by >30% over the past ten years (R. Greenberg in litt. 2006). Butcher and Niven (2007) also combined data from the two sources, estimating a large and statistically significant population decrease over the last 40 years in North America (83.8% decline over 40 years, equating to a 36.6% decline per decade).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Canada Native Extant Yes      
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Vagrant Extant        
Russia (Asian) Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
USA Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
USA Cowles Bog (Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) site factsheet
USA Donnelly Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
USA Great Dismal Swamp site factsheet
USA Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Kankakee River Fish and Wildlife Area site factsheet
USA Lower Rappahannock River site factsheet
USA Monroe Lake site factsheet
USA Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers site factsheet
USA Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Willow Slough Fish and Wildlife Area site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Air-borne pollutants / Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds)
Species name author (M
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,290,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species