This species has experienced a long term population decline which has been rapid during the past decade. For this reason it is currently classified as Vulnerable. More accurate survey data may warrant a re-evaluation of its status.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
A medium-sized blackbird with a square-tipped tail and thick bill. Males are entirely black, faintly glossed greenish. The eye is yellow. Females are dark grey-black and lack the glossy sheen of males. Immature birds are brown with a paler supercilium, darker wings and tail and some dark barring on males. Similar spp. very similar to Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus, but males of that species have a blue body gloss with contrasting violet head and females are browner. Also structurally, rusty blackbird has a finer bill and less elegant gait. Voice Males sing a squeaky but sweet rising kush-a-lee.
Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.
Wells, J., Casey-Lefkowitz, S., Chavarria, G., Dyer, S. 2008. Danger in the Nursery: Impact of Tar Sands Oil Development in Canada’s Boreal Forest. Boreal Songbird Initiative, National Resources Defense Council, Pembina Institute.
Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J.
Butcher, G., Greenberg, R., Wells, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/03/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/03/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Icteridae (New World blackbirds)|
|Species name author||(M|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||5,290,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|