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Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv) 
Endangered A2bce; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv); D1+2 
Vulnerable A2bce; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv); D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass 36 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 200-460 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Stable medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation 160-360 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.1 - - -
Population justification: In 2012 the total population was estimated at 307-690 birds (212-1,131, 95% CI), depending on whether the sampling area around each point count was assumed to encompass 100 m or 150 m (Oppel et al. 2013). The upper estimate comprises 546 (382–897) individuals in the Centre Hills, and 143 (94–234) individuals in the South Soufriere Hills (using a 100 m radius around points); and the lower is based on estimates of 243 (170–399) individuals in the Centre Hills, and 64 (42–104) individuals in the South Soufriere Hills (using a 150 m radius around points; Oppel et al. 2013). This very roughly equates to 200-460 mature individuals. Previous population estimates were of 460-590 pairs (260-1,190, 95% CI) or 920-1,180 mature individuals, and 5,200 individuals (based on 2004 survey data; Hilton 2008).
Trend justification: A variety of monitoring and analytical techniques indicate annual declines of 8-52% during the period 1997-2000 (Hilton et al. 2003) following a rapid one-off event when a volcanic eruption caused a 60% decrease in range and population in 1996. There was some recovery between 2003 and 2005, and there was no evidence of a continuing population decline between 2000-2013 despite continuing volcanic activity and the presence of native and invasive nest predators, although large uncertainty around trend estimates mean the power to detect a shallow negative trend is very low (Oppel et al. 2013). Based on the comparison of count data at 42 points, the population in 2013 was less 50% of that in 1998 (Oppel et al. 2013), thus a decline of 50-79 % is estimated to have taken place over the past three generations (18 years), but the current population trend is provisionally estimated to be stable.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Montserrat (to UK) Centre Hills site factsheet
Montserrat (to UK) South Soufriere Hills site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 100 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Pig (Sus domesticus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Icterus oberi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds)
Species name author Lawrence, 1880
Population size 200-460 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species