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Rufous-bellied Saltator Saltator rufiventris
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This localised species is listed as Near Threatened as it is thought to have a relatively small, fragmented population which is declining owing to habitat loss (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

22 cm. Large and striking seed-eating bird. Upperparts and breast are bluish slaty grey, with duller wings and tail. Lower breast and belly bright reddish-rufous. Long and conspicuous white eyebrow. Stout dark bill, and reddish to amber iris. Female slightly lighter Similar: Nothing really similar. The Cochabamba Mountain-finch Poospiza garleppi is smaller, has a rufous breast and lacks the white eyebrow. Voice: Song a warbled tíru-tíru-tíru and harsh nasal kjíau call. Hints: Usually lethargic and somewhat concealed in the vegetation.

Distribution and population
Saltator rufiventris occurs in the east Andes of La Paz, Cochabamba, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Tarija, Bolivia and Jujuy and Salta in Argentina. It is very local outside Cochabamba, but increased field effort has resulted in discoveries at several new sites (Fjeldså and Mayer 1996, Pearman 1997, Mazar Barnett et al. 1998a), and it is expected that further surveys will find it at new localities. It is common at some sites in Cochabamba and one area in La Paz (Pearman 1997, S. Mayer in litt. 1999), with the total population thought to exceed 10,000 birds (S. Mayer in litt. 1999).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
Rates of habitat loss and degradation within the species's range suggest that a slow to moderate decline is likely to be occurring, although precise data on the nature of these declines are lacking.

This species inhabits the temperate zone at 2,500-4,000 m in shrubby or open habitats (including agricultural land) with patches of scrub, Polylepis or Alnus woodland (Remsen et al. 1988, Fjeldså and Mayer 1996, Pearman 1997, Mazar Barnett et al. 1998a). It may be reliant on habitat patches comprising native tree species (S. Mayer in litt. 1999).

Scrub and native woodland patches are being fragmented and converted to agricultural and commercial forest land-uses within this species's range (Remsen et al. 1988, Rocha and Quiroga 1996, Mazar Barnett et al. 1998a, T. Hjarsen in litt. 1999), probably resulting in some population declines.

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further studies to identify habitat requirements, particularly the extent of reliance on native tree species. Survey areas surrounding the known range to determine the full extent of the distribution. Monitor known sites to measure rates of population decline and identify threats. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat, including patches of native tree species, at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fjeldså, J.; Mayer, S. 1996. Recent ornithological surveys in the Valles region, southern Bolivia and the possible role of Valles for the evolution of the Andean avifauna.

Mazar Barnett, J.; Clark, R.; Bodrati, A.; Bodrati, G.; Pugnali, G.; della Seta, M. 1998. Natural history notes on some little-known birds in north-west Argentina. Cotinga: 64-75.

Pearman, M. 1997. Rufous-bellied Saltator Saltator rufiventris. Cotinga: 73-74.

Remsen, J. V.; Schmitt, C. G.; Schmitt, D. C. 1988. Natural history notes on some poorly known Bolivian birds, 3. Le Gerfaut 78: 363-381.

Rocha O., O.; Quiroga, C. 1996. Aves. In: Ergueta, S.; de Morales, C. (ed.), Libro Rojo de los vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 95-164. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, La Paz.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

Hjarsen, T., Mayer, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Saltator rufiventris. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Rufous-bellied saltator (Saltator rufiventris) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Cardinalidae (Grosbeaks, saltators and allies)
Species name author d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 25,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species