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Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass 2385 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 285,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-8900 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19 - - -
Population justification: A population estimate of 2,500-9,999 individuals has been derived from analyses of records and surveys by BirdLife International (2001). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: Across much of its range forest has been cleared at a rapid rate. In combination with intense hunting pressure these processes are suspected to have driven rapid population declines.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bhutan Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extinct       Yes
Thailand Native Extant       Yes
Vietnam Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bhutan Deothang / Narphang / Samdrup Jongkhar site factsheet
Bhutan Jigme Singye Wangchuk National Park site factsheet
Bhutan Kamji site factsheet
Bhutan Khaling / Neoli Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Bhutan Kori La site factsheet
Bhutan Phipsoo Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Bhutan Royal Manas National Park site factsheet
Bhutan Samtse site factsheet
Bhutan Sarpang-Gelephu foothills site factsheet
Bhutan Thrumsing La National Park site factsheet
Bhutan Toorsa Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lhakhang site factsheet
China (mainland) Nabanhe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xishuangbanna site factsheet
China (mainland) Yarlung Zangbo Daxiagu Nature Reserve site factsheet
India Ango or Anko Hills site factsheet
India Behali Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Bunning Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Chaglagaum - Denning - Walong site factsheet
India Chayang Tajo - Khenewa - Lada site factsheet
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Dichu Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Eaglenest and Sessa Sanctuaries site factsheet
India East and North Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and Saramati area site factsheet
India Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary - Himalayan Zoological Park - Ratey Chu Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Intaki National Park site factsheet
India Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jatinga site factsheet
India Jiri - Makru Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kailam Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kane Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Koloriang - Sarli - Damin area site factsheet
India Langting-Mupa Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Lava - Neora Valley National Park site factsheet
India Lowland forests of South Sikkim (Melli-Baguwa-Kitam, Jorethang-Namchi, Sombarey) site factsheet
India Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary - Tendong Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Magu Thingbu site factsheet
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Manabum and Tengapani Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Manas National Park site factsheet
India Mechuka - Monigong - Jorgging site factsheet
India Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mouling National Park site factsheet
India Mount Paona site factsheet
India Mount Zanibu site factsheet
India Mount Ziphu site factsheet
India Nacho - Limeking - Taksing - Majha site factsheet
India Nafra - Lada area site factsheet
India Namdapha - Kamlang site factsheet
India Nameri National Park site factsheet
India Namsangmukh - Borduria site factsheet
India Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Norpuh Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Pakhui or Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex site factsheet
India Papum Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Satoi Range site factsheet
India Shergaon, Mandla - Phudung and Kalaktang site factsheet
India Shiroi Community Forest site factsheet
India Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Subansiri site factsheet
India Taley Valley Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (West) Complex site factsheet
India Yardi - Rabe Supse Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Laos Nakai-Nam Theun site factsheet
Laos Phou Dendin site factsheet
Laos Phou Loeuy site factsheet
Myanmar Hkakaborazi site factsheet
Myanmar Hponkanrazi site factsheet
Myanmar Hukaung Valley site factsheet
Myanmar Kyauk Pan Taung site factsheet
Myanmar Nat-yekan site factsheet
Myanmar Ngwe Taung site factsheet
Thailand Huai Kha Khaeng site factsheet
Thailand Mae Wong site factsheet
Thailand Thung Yai - Naresuan site factsheet
Thailand Umphang site factsheet
Vietnam Che Tao site factsheet
Vietnam Pu Mat site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 150 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, decorations, curios Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aceros nipalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)
Species name author (Hodgson, 1829)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 285,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species