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Mangrove Finch Camarhynchus heliobates

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v); C2a(i); D 
Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1+2 
Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v); C2a(i); D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 36-70 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1-50 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 50-100 individuals and 36-70 mature individuals (G. Young in litt. 2013).
Trend justification: In 1997 surveys on Isabela found breeding populations in only two areas, Playa Tortuga Negra and Caleta Black on the north-west coast of the island, with estimated populations of 37 and 21 pairs respectively (Grant & Grant 1997, Vargas 1997); but from 2006 to 2009 territory mapping only revealed a maximum of 27 and 15 pairs (B. Fessl et al. 2010). This equates to a decline of 20-29% over 10 years (three generations). However, trends appear to have stabilised since, and the population may even now be increasing (G. Young in litt. 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Ecuador Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Ectoparasitic botfly (Philornis downsi) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Fire Ant (Solenopsis geminata) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Yellow Paper Wasp (Polistes versicolor) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Pox Virus (Poxvirus avium) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Camarhynchus heliobates. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author (Snodgrass & Heller, 1901)
Population size 36-70 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species