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Mindoro Hornbill Penelopides mindorensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i);D1+2 
Vulnerable C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,900 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor Estimated 1999
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 51-250 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19.4 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals, based on analysis of data in BirdLife International (2001). This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.
Trend justification: Although still considered fairly common in the 1970s, this species has declined rapidly since. There are post-1990 observations from just five localities, with a maximum count of 20 birds at Siburan in 1994. Rapid declines are suspected to be continuing, owing to the pressures facing remnant forests.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Philippines Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Philippines Iglit - Baco Mountains site factsheet
Philippines Lake Naujan National Park site factsheet
Philippines Malpalon site factsheet
Philippines Mount Calavite Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Philippines Mount Halcon site factsheet
Philippines Mount Hitding site factsheet
Philippines Mount Siburan site factsheet
Philippines Puerto Galera site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Penelopides mindorensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)
Species name author Steere, 1890
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species