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Rufous-rumped Seedeater Sporophila hypochroma

Justification
This species is considered Near Threatened as it is thought to be experiencing a moderately rapid population decline owing to the degradation of grassland habitats, conversion to agriculture and exploitation for the wild cagetrade (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
Size:  cm. Summary: . Id: . Similar: . Hints: . Voice: .

Distribution and population
Sporophila hypochroma has an apparently disjunct range in north and east Bolivia (Beni, La Paz and Santa Cruz), south-west Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás), north-east Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Ríos and Formosa), Paraguay (throughout the east and south-east, and Presidente Hayes in Chaco) (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Pearman and Abadie 1995, Armonía 1995, Chebez et al. 1998) and Uruguay (in Paysandu and Artigas) (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). Breeding has been proven in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay (Pearman and Abadie 1995, Hayes 1995, Lowen et al. 1996, R. P. Clay in litt. 2000). Southern breeding populations migrate north to winter in Brazil (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, R. P. Clay in litt. 2000) and possibly in Concepcíon, Paraguay (R. P. Clay in litt. 2000). Populations in Bolivia are apparently sedentary, but there are no data from late autumn and early winter (Di Giácomo and Contreras 1998).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
Slow to moderate population declines are suspected to be occurring, owing to habitat loss and persecution for the cagebird trade.

Ecology
It has been reported near marshes, seasonally flooded grasslands, pastures and savanna-like areas to 1,100 m, but breeding appears restricted to low, seasonally wet grasslands (Pearman and Abadie 1995).

Threats
Widespread destruction and modification of grasslands in central South America for mechanised agriculture, intensive cattle-grazing and afforestation with non-native tree genera, and pressure from trappers suggest that the species is declining rapidly. However, it has been claimed that Argentine populations are expanding in range and number (Pearman and Abadie 1995), but this may be an artifact of improved observer awareness and knowledge.

Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix I. Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations at known sites to determine trends, as well as numbers appearing in the wild bird trade. Campaign for the protection of key native grasslands across the range.

References
Armonía. 1995. Lista de las aves de Bolivia. Armonía, Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Chebez, J. C.; Rey, N. R.; Barbaskas, M.; Di Giacomo, A. G. 1998. Las aves de los Parques Nacionales de la Argentina. Literature of Latin America, Buenos Aries.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Di Giacomo, A. S.; Contreras, J. R. 1998. Movimientos estacionales en el género Sporophila.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Pearman, M.; Abadie, E. I. 1995. Mesopotamia grassland and wetlands survey 1991-1993.

Pearman, M.; Abadie, E. I. Undated. Mesopotamia grasslands and wetlands survey, 1991--1993: conservation of threatened birds and habitat in north-east Argentina.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Clay, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sporophila hypochroma. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Grey-and-chestnut seedeater (Sporophila hypochroma) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author Todd, 1915
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 197,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species