email a friend
printable version
Rufous Hornbill Buceros hydrocorax

This forest-dependent species is considered Near Threatened as it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly throughout its range as a result of habitat loss and persecution by hunters and trappers.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note

Buceros hydrocorax and B. mindanensis (del Hoyo et al. 2013) were previously lumped as B. hydrocorax following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Distribution and population
Buceros hydrocorax is endemic to the Philippines where it occurs on 11 islands: Luzon and Marinduque (race hydrocorax), Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Panaon, Biliran, Calico-an and Buad (race semigaleatus), Dinagat, Siargao, Mindanao (plus Balut, Bucas and Talicud) and Basilan (race mindanensis) (Collar et al. 1999). It is still patchily common, notably in the Sierra Madre of Luzon, but is likely to be declining across much of its range.

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it has been described as locally common.

Trend justification
Data on precise population trends are lacking, but a moderately rapid decline is suspected, as a result of widespread habitat loss and degradation, as well as mortality from hunting and trapping.

This species occurs largely in primary evergreen forests up to 2,100 m. It is also known to occur locally in mature secondary and selectively-logged forests.

This species suffers from substantial hunting pressure and widespread loss of habitat as a result of logging and conversion to agriculture.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations across the range to determine the magnitude of declines and rates of range contraction. Campaign for the protection of remaining tracts of lowland forest throughout the range.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J. & Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Buceros hydrocorax. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1766
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 191,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species