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Multicoloured Tanager Chlorochrysa nitidissima

Justification
This species has a small range, and is known from a small number of locations. Its known population is suspected to be small, fragmented into very small subpopulations, and declining as a result of continuing habitat loss. Consequently, it is listed as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
12.5 cm. Stunning, brightly coloured tanager. Male has yellow face and throat with gleaming green hindcrown and nape. Black patch on sides of neck bordered chestnut below. Yellow mantle and greenish-blue rump. Emerald-green wings and tail. Bright blue underparts with black median breast and belly. Female similar but duller, and lacks yellow mantle and black on underparts. Similar spp. If seen poorly, could be confused with Saffron-crowned Tanager Tangara xanthocephala, which has black mask and throat. Voice Call single or multiple wheezing ceeet notes.

Distribution and population
Chlorochrysa nitidissima occurs in the west and north-central Andes of Colombia (in Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío, Valle del Cauca and Cauca). There are records from only two sites in the central Andes since 1951: Ucumarí Regional Park, Risaralda, in the early 1990s (Wege and Long 1995), and the northernmost locality near Anorí, Antioquia, in 1999 (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999). The great majority of modern records in the west Andes are from accessible sites in Valle del Cauca. It was formerly common, but is now infrequently recorded, although it remains fairly common locally, even in remnant forest fragments.

Population justification
Extrapolating recorded densities across the species's range (assuming 10% of its Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied) gives a preliminary population estimate of 21,970 individuals. As this is a rough estimate, it is best placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals. A more accurate population estimate is desirable.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Ecology
It inhabits humid, mossy, montane forest and borders in the subtropical zone at 1,300-2,200 m, exceptionally as low as 1,140 m in the central Andes, and 900 m in the West Andes. In adjacent areas, it also occurs regularly in mature secondary forest and clearings with a few large trees left standing. The diet comprises insects, mainly taken when foraging with mixed-species flocks, and fruit.

Threats
Deforestation has been severe in many parts of its range, notably Valle del Cauca, Cerro Tatamá, along the Buenaventura-Cali and Buenaventura-Buga roads, and around Medellín (Wege and Long 1995, Salaman and Stiles 1996). However, large blocks of primary forest remain, e.g. in Farallones de Cali and Los Nevados national parks, and on the Caramanta Massif (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles 1998). The rapid expansion of the road network is opening up more remote parts of the species's range to logging, mining and human settlement (Salaman and Stiles 1996). Immigration will inevitably lead to deforestation (Stiles 1998), through small-scale agriculture and subsistence activities.

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recently recorded in the Ucumarí section of Los Nevados National Park, Yotoco Forest Reserve, Farallones de Cali National Park, Tambito Nature Reserve and Munchique National Park (Wege and Long 1995, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The northernmost site is within a proposed regional park (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999). Education and awareness activities within the western Andes have included local schools participating in a Bird Month Celebration and publication of a conservation magazine (Fierro-Calderón et al. 2009).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey poorly-known areas of habitat, e.g. in Farallones de Cali National Park (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999). Enforce conservation measures in protected areas, specifically in providing non-damaging alternatives to settlers in Munchique National Park and the Tambito region (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, T. Donegan in litt. 2012). Research its ecological requirements and population size (Renjifo et al. 2002). Use recent information to produce a regional management plan for the western Andes (Fierro-Calderón et al. 2009).

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fierro-Calderón, K.; Montealegre, C.; Fierro-Calderón, E.; Eusse, D. 2009. Five threatened species in the western Andes of Colombia. 2008 Future Conservationist Awards. Calidris, Cali.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Salaman, P. G. W.; Stiles, F. G. 1996. A distinctive new species of vireo (Passeriformes: Vireonidae) from the Western Andes of Colombia. Ibis 138: 610-619.

Stiles, F. G. 1998. Notes on the biology of two threatened species of Bangsia tanagers in northwestern Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118: 25-31.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Cuervo, A., Dávalos, L., Salaman, P., Donegan, T.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chlorochrysa nitidissima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Multicoloured tanager (Chlorochrysa nitidissima) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author Sclater, 1873
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species