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Gold-ringed Tanager Bangsia aureocincta
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Justification
This species has a very small range, and is currently known from just three locations (Collar et al. 1992). Continuing habitat loss and consequent range and population declines are projected for the main subpopulation, because of proposed road construction. In other areas, habitat loss is likely to be ongoing. As a result, it qualifies as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Buthraupis aureocincta Collar and Andrew (1988), Buthraupis aureocincta Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
16 cm. Curiously-shaped black, dark green and yellow tanager. Mostly dark green, with black head and yellow ring formed by postocular supercilium curving behind ear-coverts and joining malar to base of bill. Black throat, yellow central breast. Similar spp. Bears superficial resemblance to Slaty-capped Shrike-vireo Vireolanius leucotis. Voice Song consists of sharp, penetrating, high-pitched whistles or thin, watery trills, tseeuurr, delivered in groups of 3-6. Short, twittered trill on lower pitch often given when alarmed or excited. Also chip and chit contact notes.

Distribution and population
Bangsia aureocincta occurs on the Pacific slope of the West Andes, Colombia. Four specimens were collected in the vicinity of Cerro Tatamá (Risaralda/Chocó/Valle del Cauca border) between 1909 and 1946, but it was not found by surveys during the 1990s and may be locally extinct (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles 1998). Since 1946, it has been recorded at Alto de los Galápagos (Valle del Cauca/Chocó border) (C. Acevedo per N. Gómez in litt. 1999, Farthing 2001), the Caramanta massif at Alto de Pisones (Risaralda), where it is common to abundant (Stiles 1998), and recently in Las Orquídeas National Park (Antioquia) (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, based on habitat loss data given by Renjifo et al. (2002).

Ecology
The type-specimens were collected in humid, mossy cloud-forest between 2,040 and 2,195 m. At Alto de los Galápagos, it has been recorded between 1,750 and 2,100 m (Salaman and Stiles 1996, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). At Alto de Pisones, it inhabits dense, wet cloud-forest with numerous natural tree gaps breaking the canopy, on steep ridges between 1,600 and 1,800 m (Salaman and Stiles 1996, Stiles 1998. The breeding season is thought to be concentrated in March and April (Stiles 1998). It feeds primarily on fruit (stomachs of collected birds contained 70-90% fruit), but also insects when foraging in mixed-species flocks (Stiles 1998).

Threats
Deforestation has been severe on Cerro Tatamá. On the Caramanta massif, the species occurs in a large forest block, which is effectively intact from 800-1,000 m up to 2,000+ m (Wege and Long 1995, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). However, a proposed highway will run within 5-7 km of Alto de Pisiones, opening the area up to logging, mining and human settlement (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). Furthermore, Alto de los Galápagos is on the Cartago-San José road (Wege and Long 1995). Although the region is inhabited by Embera Indians, further colonisation will inevitably lead to deforestation (Salaman and Stiles 1996, Stiles 1998, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999), through small-scale agriculture and subsistence activities. The presence of guerrillas in the area renders government action and research difficult (Stiles 1998, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
Tatamá National Park protects the type-locality, and is just north of Alto de Galápagos (Wege and Long 1995), but the recently discovered populations remain unprotected. It also occurs in Las Orquídeas National Park (Renjifo et al. 2002). A management plan for Alto de Pisiones is in preparation, and a local organisation hopes to execute it in spite of the political instability (Stiles 1998). Furthermore, the area may be gazetted within the proposed Caramanta National Park (Stiles 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey other mountain ridges of the Caramanta massif (Stiles 1998). Protect forest at Alto de Pisones effectively. Initiate conservation measures at Alto de los Galápagos (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Farthing, J. 2001. A new locality for Gold-ringed Tanager Bangsia aureocincta. Cotinga 16: 66-67.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Salaman, P. G. W.; Stiles, F. G. 1996. A distinctive new species of vireo (Passeriformes: Vireonidae) from the Western Andes of Colombia. Ibis 138: 610-619.

Stiles, F. G. 1998. Notes on the biology of two threatened species of Bangsia tanagers in northwestern Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118: 25-31.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Acevedo, C., Gomez, N., Salaman, P., Stiles, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bangsia aureocincta. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Gold-ringed tanager (Bangsia aureocincta) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author (Hellmayr, 1910)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 670 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species