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Blue-and-gold Tanager Bangsia arcaei

Justification
This species has a small range and population, which are both thought to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of its habitat. However, neither its range nor its population are considered to be severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Synonym(s)
Buthraupis arcaei Stotz et al. (1996), Buthraupis arcaei Collar and Andrew (1988)

Distribution and population
Bangsia arcaei occurs in three disjunct populations: on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica from extreme south-east Guanacaste to Cartago; in central Bocas del Toro, central Chiriquí, Veraguas, and Coclé, Panama; and in the Cerro Jefe/Cerro Brewster area of east Panamá province and extreme west San Blas, Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Isler and Isler 1999). It has also been reported from the Serranía del Darién in Colombia (per Donegan et al. 2011, O. Cortes in litt. 2011). Its range probably includes the serranías de San Blas and del Darién in Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989), the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999), and contiguous mountains in west Panama, but it has yet to be recorded in these areas (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). The population estimate for Costa Rican Important Bird Areas is 2,500-3,900 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007, Sánchez et al. 2009), implying that there are fewer than 10,000 mature individuals in total.

Population justification
The population estimate for Costa Rican Important Bird Areas is 2,500-3,900 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007, Sánchez et al. 2009), implying that there are fewer than 10,000 mature individuals in total, thus the population is placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, probably equivalent to a total population of 3,700-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A slow to moderate and on-going population decline is suspected based on rates of habitat loss within the species's range.

Ecology
This species is found in lowland and montane evergreen forest, forest edges and gaps at elevations of 300-1,500 m, but mostly at 700-1,050 m (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989). It typically forages in the canopy, feeding on fruit, insects and spiders, and occasionally extracting nectar by removing and damaging flowers (Isler and Isler 1999). It has been observed to nest in moss clumps. Breeding has been noted in April in Costa Rica and July in Panama (Isler and Isler 1999).

Threats
There has been widespread destruction of its foothill and montane forests, primarily as a result of burning, logging and other conversion leading to intensive agricultural use (Dinerstein et al. 1995), and intact habitat is now patchy (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). The species's range in Costa Rica is now regarded as fairly well protected (Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). However, areas around Cerro Jefe in Panama have been partially deforested despite being in national parks (Dinerstein et al. 1995). The Caribbean slope in Panama was still extensively forested in the mid-1990s (Harcourt and Sayer 1996); however, since 2000, severe deforestation is reported to have been taking place within perhaps half of the species's range in Panama and has now reached the continental divide in some areas (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). In addition, this species's narrow altitudinal range is likely to render it susceptible to the effects of projected climate change (G. Angehr in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess its total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation throughout its range. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status. Carry out further research into the species's ecology.

References
Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Donegan, T.; Quevedo, A.; McMullan, M.; Salaman, P. 2011. Revision of the status of bird species occurring or reported in Colombia 2011. Conservación Colombiana 15: 4-21.

Harcourt, C. S.; Sayer, J. A. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Isler, M. L.; Isler, P. R. 1999. Tanagers. Christopher Helm, London.

Ridgely, R. S.; Gwynne, J. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Sánchez, J. E.; Criado, J.; Sánchez, C.; Sandoval, L. 2009. Costa Rica. In: Devenish, C.; Díaz Fernández, D. F.; Clay, R. P.; Davidson, I. J.; Yépez Zabala, I. (ed.), Important Bird Areas Americas – Priority sites for biodiversity conservation, BirdLife International, Quito.

Stiles, F.G. and Skutch, A.F. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Biamonte, E., Criado, J., Sandoval, L., Stiles, F., Sánchez, C., Sánchez, J., Zook, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bangsia arcaei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Blue-and-gold tanager (Bangsia arcaei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author (Sclater & Salvin, 1869)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,900 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species