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White-winged Warbler Xenoligea montana
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species is considered Vulnerable because it has a small and severely fragmented range and population, which has undergone a considerable historic decline and presumably continues to decline rapidly as a result of habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

14.5 cm. Chunky, heavy billed, olive denizen of dense cloud-forest. Olive upperparts contrast with grey head. White subloral spot and slightly split white eye-ring. Whitish underparts and extensive white in primaries. Grey tail with white outer rectrices. Heavy black bill and dark eye. Juvenile undescribed. Similar spp Green-tailed Warbler Microligea palustris is duller, less contrasting, and lacks white subloral spot and white in primaries. Voice Song is short accelerating series of squeaky notes. Call is thin tseep and low chattering. Hints Best located by call in dense understorey. Usually seen in pairs, but sometimes with mixed-species flocks.

Distribution and population
Xenoligea montana is known from the Massifs de la Hotte and de la Selle, Haiti, and the Sierras de Baoruco and de Neiba, and the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. It is extremely threatened in Haiti, and may already have been extirpated from much of the country, including the Massif de la Selle (Raffaele et al. 1998, Dávalos and Brooks 2001), but there are recent records from Pic Macaya National Park where it is fairly common in wet karst limestone forest (P. Bayard and E. Fernandez in litt. 2003, Latta et al. 2006). In the Dominican Republic, it is still locally common, but is presumably declining.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining, since habitat loss is on-going.

It inhabits dense stands of montane broadleaved vegetation including low trees, open thickets and humid shrubbery, and sometimes pines. It occurs between 875 and 2,000 m, but mostly at 1,300-1,800 m in moist montane forest of broadleaf or mixed broadleaf and pines (Latta et al. 2006). It forages for insects and seeds in low, dense vegetation and is particularly associated with the Florida trema Trema micrantha, which produces one of its favourite fruits (Raffaele et al. 1998, Latta et al. 2006). It probably nests on or near the ground in April-May (Curson et al. 1994).

Habitat loss for agriculture and timber is probably the principal threat since large areas of montane growth have been cleared on Hispaniola. Predation of nests by introduced mongooses may have contributed to this species's decline (Curson et al. 1994).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in a number of protected areas including Pic Macaya and (at least formerly) La Visite National Parks, Haiti, as well as Sierra de Baoruco and Armando Bermudez National Parks, the Dominican Republic. Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the status of the population, especially in Haiti (Ottenwalder 1992c). Determine its precise habitat requirements and the status of this habitat (Ottenwalder 1992c). Ensure that the protected-areas network adequately protects this species (Ottenwalder 1992c). Enforce the protection afforded to the species habitat by Sierra de Baoruco National Park.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Curson, J.; Quinn, D.; Beadle, D. 1994. New World warblers. A&C Black/Christopher Helm, London.

Dávalos, L. M.; Brooks, T. 2001. Parc national la Visite, Haiti: a last refuge for the country's montane birds. Cotinga 16: 36-39.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Latta, S.; Rimmer, C.; Keith, A.; Wiley, J.; Raffaele, H.; McFarland, K.; Fernandez, E. 2006. Birds of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.

Ottenwalder, J. A. 1992. Recovery plan for the conservation of the White-winged Warbler in southern Haiti.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Fisher, S., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D. & Ashpole, J

Bayard, P. & Fernandez, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Xenoligea montana. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-winged warbler (Xenoligea montana) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Parulidae (New World warblers)
Species name author (Chapman, 1917)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,500 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species