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Paria Redstart Myioborus pariae
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This species has a very small range, with records from just one national park. Most of its range is formally protected, but the park is weakly managed and the spread of agriculture continues to destroy habitat, and the population is presumably declining. It is therefore listed as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

13 cm. Yellow-and-grey warbler with obvious white outertail. Dull olive-grey upperparts with orange crown. Yellow lores and eye-ring forming spectacles. Entirely yellow underparts with white undertail-coverts. White outer rectrices. Similar spp. Slate-throated Whitestart M. miniatus lacks yellow facial features and has dark throat. Voice Rather soft, liquid tship.

Distribution and population
Myioborus pariae is endemic to the Paria Peninsula in Sucre, north-east Venezuela. It is apparently fairly to very common on Cerro Humo, with 4-6 birds regularly encountered on one day in the field. However, suitable habitat on Cerro Humo is restricted to c.15 km2, and there are relatively few records further east. On Cerro Azul, a specimen was taken in 1948 and, given low levels of habitat loss, the species presumably still occurs here. On Cerro El Olvido, only one bird was recorded in June-September 1988 (Bond et al. 1989), but a small number of individuals were found relatively easily in 1991 (Sharpe 2008) and 1999 (Hayes et al. 2003). Cerro Patao has been mentioned as a locality, but the evidence for this is uncertain.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
New information is lacking on population size and trends, but habitat degradation and clearance are on-going, suggesting that populations may be in decline, perhaps at a rate of 1-9% over ten years.

On Cerro Humo, it has been found at elevations of 800-1,150 m, with records further east at 920 m on Cerro Azul, and as low as c.400 m on Cerro El Olvido (Hayes et al. 2003). Birds have been found foraging (alone and in pairs) for insects at 1-5 m in upper and lower montane humid forest, open coffee groves (under the forest canopy), secondary growth and especially at the forest edge.

Increases in cash-crop agriculture, especially the cultivation of "ocumo blanco" (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and "ocumo chino" (Colocasia esculenta), since the mid- to late 1980s, have resulted in uncontrolled burning and forest degradation. Cerros Humo and Patao have been worst affected, with the east of the peninsula fairly undisturbed. A new paved road from Güiria to Macuro will almost certainly lead to increased habitat clearance (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1995, 2000, 2003). It is considered nationally Endangered in Venezuela (Sharpe 2008).

Conservation Actions Underway
Most of its range is formally protected by the Paria Peninsula National Park, but this has not entirely halted habitat degradation. In fact, this national park has always been chronically underfunded, even though it has been the target of some (admittedly rather ineffectual) international protected area strengthening programmes (Sharpe in litt. 2011). It still has no management plan, has insufficient budget, too few staff (three park guards), and inadequate means of transport and communications (Sharpe in litt. 2011). The park has apparently been expanded slightly on to the southern slope of Cerro Humo (a critical area for the species), but this has not been confirmed officially (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1995, 2000, 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the population on Cerro Humo. Urgently survey cerros Patao, Azul, and El Olvido. Study its ecological requirements (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, Sharpe 2008). Initiate programmes to develop economic alternatives to reduce agricultural encroachment in villages adjacent to the national park (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, Sharpe 2008, Sharpe in litt. 2011).

Bond, R. E.; Convey, P.; Sharpe, C. J.; Varey, A. 1989. Cambridge Columbus zoological expedition to Venezuela 1988. University of Cambridge , Cambridge, UK.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hayes, F. E.; MnNair, D. B.; Lucas, F. B.; Ramjohn, C. L.; Johnson, N. C.; Ballah, S. T.; Doodnath, L. W.; Garcia, K. M. 2003. Noteworthy observations of birds, including two globally threatened species, in the eastern Paria Peninsula, Venezuela. Cotinga 20: 101-102.

Rodríguez, J. P.; Rojas-Suárez, F. 1995. Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Provita, Caracas.

Sharpe, C.J. 2008. Aves. In: Rodríguez, J.P. & Rojas-Suárez, F. (ed.), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana, 3rd edition, pp. 122-157. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A.,, Caracas, Venezuela.

Sharpe, C.J. 2008. Candelita de Paria Myioborus pariae. In: Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. (eds), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Tercera Edición, pp. 154. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A., Caracas, Venezuela.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Gilroy, J., Pople, R. & Sharpe, C J

Rodríguez, J., Rojas-Suárez, F., Sharpe, C J & Pérez-Emán, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Myioborus pariae. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Paria whitestart (Myioborus pariae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Parulidae (New World warblers)
Species name author Phelps & Phelps, 1949
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 270 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species