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Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 815,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,080,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -
Population justification: Rich et al. (2003).
Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-83% decline over 40 years, equating to a -35.8% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bahamas Native Extant     Yes  
Barbados Native Extant     Yes  
Belize Native Extant     Yes  
Bolivia Native Extant   Yes    
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Brazil Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Colombia Native Extant   Yes    
Costa Rica Native Extant     Yes  
Cuba Native Extant     Yes  
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant     Yes  
Honduras Native Extant     Yes  
Jamaica Native Extant     Yes  
Mexico Native Extant     Yes  
Nicaragua Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Native Extant     Yes  
Peru Native Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
St Lucia Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belize Belize Off-shore and Barrier Islands site factsheet
Belize Maya Mountains and southern reserves site factsheet
Belize Northeastern Belize site factsheet
Belize Rio Bravo CMA Gallon Jug Estate site factsheet
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Santos e São Sebastião) site factsheet
Brazil Serra do Tinguá site factsheet
Colombia Bosque de San Antonio/Km 18 site factsheet
Colombia Bosques del Oriente de Risaralda site factsheet
Colombia Bosques Montanos del Sur de Antioquia site factsheet
Colombia Cañón del Río Barbas y Bremen site factsheet
Colombia Capurganá site factsheet
Colombia Chicoral site factsheet
Colombia Cuchilla de San Lorenzo site factsheet
Colombia Humedales de la Sabana de Bogotá site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona site factsheet
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower site factsheet
Colombia Reserva Forestal Yotoco site factsheet
Colombia Reserva Hidrográfica, Forestal y Parque Ecológico de Río Blanco site factsheet
Colombia Serranía de las Quinchas site factsheet
Colombia Soatá site factsheet
Guatemala Guatemalan Caribbean Slope site factsheet
Guatemala Maya-Lacandon site factsheet
Honduras Islas de la Bahía y Cayos Cochinos site factsheet
Honduras Pico Bonito site factsheet
Honduras Rio Platano site factsheet
Honduras Sierra de Agalta site factsheet
Honduras Swan Islands site factsheet
Honduras Tawahka site factsheet
Panama Altos de Campana National Park site factsheet
Panama Bocas del Toro Archipelago site factsheet
Panama Chagres National Park site factsheet
Panama Darién National Park site factsheet
Panama General de División Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park site factsheet
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests site factsheet
Panama Metropolitan Nature Park site factsheet
Panama Narganá Wildlands Area site factsheet
Panama Panama Canal West Bank site factsheet
Panama San Lorenzo National Park site factsheet
Panama Santa Fé National Park site factsheet
Panama Soberanía National Park site factsheet
USA Allegan State Game Area & Kalamazoo River (Galesburg to Saugatuck) site factsheet
USA Allegany Forest Tract site factsheet
USA Allegheny Highlands site factsheet
USA Barry State Game Area, Yankee Springs Recreation Area & Perry Trust site factsheet
USA Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Bull Creek site factsheet
USA Castle Rock State Park and Lowden-Miller SF site factsheet
USA Cumberland Mountains site factsheet
USA Current / Jack's Fork Watershed-45 site factsheet
USA Eleven Point Watershed-43 site factsheet
USA Fort Custer Training Center and Recreation Area site factsheet
USA Guyandotte Mountain Vicinity site factsheet
USA Hoosier National Forest - Pleasant Run Unit site factsheet
USA Lewis Wetzel WMA site factsheet
USA Mississippi Palisades State Park site factsheet
USA Montezuma Wetlands Complex site factsheet
USA Old Mine Road site factsheet
USA Ozark National Forest site factsheet
USA Patoka River National Widlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Pequannock Watershed site factsheet
USA Pomona Nongame Bird Management Area site factsheet
USA Roanoke River Bottomlands site factsheet
USA Sugar Creek Valley site factsheet
USA Upper / Middle Meramec River Watershed-46 site factsheet
USA Upper Blue Ridge Mountains site factsheet
USA Waterloo Recreation Area site factsheet
USA White River (Manistee National Forest) site factsheet
USA Yellow River Forest/Effigy Mounds National Mounument site factsheet
USA Yellowwood State Forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 500 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Dendroica cerulea. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Parulidae (New World warblers)
Species name author (Wilson, 1810)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 815,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species