Since 1987, conservation action has successfully increased the population of this species. Numbers exceeded 500 singing males in 1994 following doubling of suitably aged habitat between 1987 and 1990. Numbers continue to increase, but its population and range remain small, hence its classification as Near Threatened.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
14.5 cm. Large grey-and-yellow warbler. Male, blue-grey above with diffuse black streaking on the mantle. Black lores and split white eye-ring. Yellow underparts with black streaking on flanks. Female, similar but paler with brown tinge to mantle and lacks black lores. Immature has greyish streaking and spots on throat. Voice Song an emphatic chip-chip-che-way-o.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Anon. 2008. Seeing Kirtland's Warbler in Michigan. Birding World 21(5): 211-213.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Mayfield, H. F. 1992. Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandi). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 19, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Richter, J. 1996. New friends for the Kirtland's Warbler. Endangered Species Bulletin 11: 12.
Curson, J.; Quinn, D.; Beadle, D. 1994. New World warblers. A&C Black/Christopher Helm, London.
Austen, M. J. W.; Cadman, M. D.; James, R. D. 1994. Ontario birds at risk. Federation of Ontario Naturalists and Long Point Bird Observatory, Ontario.
Anon. 1996. Forest fire helps Kirtland's Warbler. Canadian Wildlife: 43.
Nelson, M. D.; Buech, R. R. 1996. A test of three models of Kirtland's Warbler habitat suitability. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24: 89-97.
Sykes, P. W. 1997. A closer look: Kirtland's Warbler. Birding 29: 220-227.
Haney, J. C.; Lee, D. S.; Walsh-McGehee, M. 1998. A quantitative analysis of winter distribution and habitats of Kirtland's Warblers in the Bahamas. Condor 100: 201-217.
Sykes, P. W.; Clench, M. H. 1998. Winter habitat of Kirtland's Warbler: an endangered Neartic/Neotropical migrant. Wilson Bulletin 110: 244-261.
Line, L. 2008. Bouncing back [Kirtland's Warblers]. Audubon 110(2): 28.
Probst, J. R.; Donner, D. M.; Bocetti, C. I.; Sjogren, S. 2003. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA. Oryx 37: 365-373.
Wunderle, J. M.; Currie, D.; Ewert, D. N. 2006. The response of wintering Kirtland's Warblers to food patch dynamics as the dry season proceeds in the Bahamas. Wings without borders: IV North American Ornithological Conference, October 3-7, 2006, Veracruz, Mexico, pp. 366. American Ornithologists' Union, Waco, TX, USA.
Eskelsen, J. 2007. Kirtland's Warblers found nesting outside Michigan. Birder's World 21(5): 14-16.
Wunderle, J. M., Jr.; Currie, D.; Helmer, E. H.; Ewert, D. N.; White, J. D.; Ruzycki, T. S.; Parresol, B.; Kwit, C. 2010. Kirtland's Warblers in anthropogenically disturbed early-successional habitats on Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Condor 112(1): 123-137.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Pople, R.
Ewert, D., Hilton, G., Rustem, R.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Dendroica kirtlandii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Parulidae (New World warblers)|
|Species name author||(Baird, 1852)|
|Population size||2300-2400 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||13,900 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|