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Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea

Justification
This poorly known migratory species is classified as Near Threatened because its moderately small population is suspected to be declining as a result of the conversion and degradation of its habitats. Improved information on its population size and trend may in due course lead to a reassessment of its status.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Distribution and population
Emberiza cineracea breeds on the islands of Skyros (Hölzinger 1995), Lesbos and Chios, Greece (115-305 pairs [BirdLife International 2004]), and western Turkey (race cineracea), as well as in south-east Turkey and south-west Iran (fewer than 100 pairs in the Zagros mountains; race semenowi) (Byers et al. 1995; Cramp and Perrins 1994). Statements regarding potential breeding in northern Syria and Iraq are of uncertain validity (Albayrak et al. 2003). The winter distribution remains poorly known, but includes Eritrea and Yemen, and potentially also Ethiopia, north-east Sudan and south-west Saudi Arabia (where records may solely relate to individuals on migration) (Walther et al. 2004; Walther 2006). In addition, there are passage records along the species's two, well-separated migration routes: Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Palestinian Authority Territories and Egypt (predominantly race cineracea); and Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman (race semenowi). The Turkish breeding population - which at 2,500-7,500 pairs probably constitutes over 90% of the global population - was suspected to have declined by 0-19% during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004).

Population justification
Based on estimates of 2,600-7,800 breeding pairs in Europe and less than 100 pairs in Iran, the population is estimated to number 5,400-15,800 mature individuals, roughly equating to 8,000-24,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification
A slow to moderate overall decline is suspected, based on reported declines in Turkey (which probably holds more than 90% of the global breeding population) of 1-19% during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004).

Ecology
The species breeds on dry rocky slopes and uplands with shrubby vegetation and sometimes conifers. It is migratory, wintering in dry open country with short grass, semi-desert, low rocky hills, bare cultivated land and dry scrub, often in coastal areas. Migrating birds are regularly recorded in lowland agricultural land and semi-deserts.

Threats
Changes in grazing pressure by sheep and goats could affect the population size. High grazing pressure could result in the trampling of nests, whereas too little grazing could reduce the area of open feeding sites (Albayrak et al. 2003). Remaining habitat in western Turkey is being developed rapidly for tourism (Tucker and Heath 1994). Suitable habitats in south-east Turkey have been flooded by dam construction, resulting both in direct habitat loss and the relocation of displaced villagers to new, currently unpopulated areas (Albayrak et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is legally protected under Greek and Turkish law (Albayrak et al. 2003). One of the breeding sites on Lesbos is partially protected as a Natural Monument and Wildlife Refuge (Albayrak et al. 2003). An international action plan was published in 2003 (Albayrak et al. 2003). The species's potential winter distribution has been modelled using GIS-based techniques (Walther et al. 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey suitable habitat within the putative wintering grounds (Walther et al. 2004; Walther 2006). Develop a Species Action Plan. Develop a monitoring programme to assess population trends. Assess threats to the species and develop appropriate responses.

References
Albayrak, T., Gürsoy, A. and Kirwan, G.M. 2002. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Byers, C.; Olsson, U.; Curson, J. 1995. Buntings and sparrows: a guide to the buntings and North American sparrows. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol IX: buntings and New World warblers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hölzinger, J. 1995. The Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea breeding on Skyros (Greece). Zoology in the Middle East 11: 31-36.

Tucker, G. M.; Heath, M. F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Walther, B. A. 2006. The winter distribution and habitat use of the near-threatened Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea. Sandgrouse 28(1): 52-57.

Walther, B. A.; Wisz, M.S.; Rahbek, C. 2004. Known and predicted African winter distributions and habitat use of the endangered Basra Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) and the near-threatened Cinereous Bunting (Emberiza cineracea). Journal of Ornithology 45: 287-299.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Pople, R.

Contributors
Balkiz, O., Walther, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Emberiza cineracea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Cinereous bunting (Emberiza cineracea) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author Brehm, 1855
Population size 5400-15800 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 83,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species