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Rufous-backed Bunting Emberiza jankowskii

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2bc+3bc+4bc 
Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc;D1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2010 Endangered
2009 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 233,000 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium Estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -
Population justification: The total population is likely to be fewer than 500 pairs, assuming that there are currently unknown populations remaining elsewhere, but may now be considerably fewer than 200 pairs (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008). It is placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals, equating to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals. National population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China and < c.100 breeding pairs and < c.50 individuals on migration in Korea (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Although a series of accurate population surveys are lacking, reports of extremely rapid declines in many locations where the species was formerly abundant suggests a decline of 50-79% over 11 years (three generations) (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Beidagang site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yaojingzi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yematu site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate major resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Emberiza jankowskii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author Taczanowski, 1888
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 233,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species