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This species is listed as Critically Endangered because habitat within its extremely small range is being degraded through grazing by feral goats, with an imminent threat from feral deer posing a new pressure. It remains at risk from the effects of exotic taxa. A particular concern is the possible introduction of a disease-carrying mosquito species tolerant of the cooler climate at higher altitudes, thereby bringing currently safe populations of birds into contact with lethal diseases.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
18 cm. Large honeycreeper with slightly downcurved, sharp bill and distinctive forward-curving crest of stiff, white feathers on forehead. Mostly black, streaked and spotted with orange-red and silvery-grey. Shaggy red-orange patch on hindneck, orange-buff eye-ring and short postocular stripe. Orange-buff thighs. Primaries and tail feathers tipped white. Sexes similar, but juvenile all sooty-grey with orange-buff eye-ring and very short, grey crest. Voice Song a variable series of low-pitched notes ah-gurk-gurk-gurk or ah-koh-heh-koh-heh and many other variations. Call a human-like upslurred whistle.
Berger, A. J. 1972. Hawaiian birdlife. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Berlin, K. E.; VanGelder, E. M. 1999. 'Akohekohe Palmeria dolei. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, 400, pp. 1-16. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia.
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.
Jacobi, J. D.; Atkinson, C. T. 1995. Hawaii's endemic birds. In: LaRoe, E.T. (ed.), Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, pp. 376-381. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.
Loope, L. L.; Medeiros, A. C. 1995. Strategies for long-term protection of biological diversity in rainforests of Haleakala National Park and East Maui, Hawaii. Endangered Species Update 12: 1-5.
Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project. 2013. Akohekohe Movements. Available at: http://mauiforestbirds.org/articles/94. (Accessed: 01/10/2013).
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Pratt, T. K.; Simon, J. C.; Farm, B. P.; Berlin, K. E.; Kowalsky, J. R. 2001. Home range and territoriality of two Hawaiian Honeycreepers, the 'Akohekohe and Maui Parrotbill. Condor 103: 746-755.
Rosa, K.; Hopper, D.; Reilly, S. 1998. Draft environment assessment for possible management actions to save the Po'ouli. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
Simon, J. C.; Baker, P. E.; Baker, H. 1997. Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 311, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Simon, J. C.; Pratt, T. K.; Berlin, K. E.; Kowalsky, J. R. 2001. Reproductive ecology and demography of the 'Akehekohe. Condor 103: 736-745.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Derhé, M., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T. & Symes, A.
Baker, P., Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Simon, J., VanGelder, E., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Palmeria dolei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/04/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/04/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Critically Endangered|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Wilson, 1891)|
|Population size||2500 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||60 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|