This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small and contracting range and, although it is still relatively abundant, surveys have shown that it is undergoing a continuing population decline.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Berger, A. J. 1972. Hawaiian birdlife. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
Jacobi, J. D.; Atkinson, C. T. 1995. Hawaii's endemic birds. In: LaRoe, E.T. (ed.), Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, pp. 376-381. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.
LaPointe, D. A. 2006. Feral pigs, introduced mosquitoes, and the decline of Hawai'I's native birds.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
Camp, R., Donaldson, P., Fretz, J., Hart, P., Lepson, J., Pratt, H., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Vestiaria coccinea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Forster, 1780)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||19,800 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|