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This species is classified as Critically Endangered owing to an extremely rapid decline in population size over the last ten years. Urgent action is required to halt the decline of this species, which until relatively recently was considered not uncommon.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
11 cm. Small, finch-like bird with notched tail and conical bill with slightly crossed tips (hard to see in the field). Male basically olive-green above, yellow below, with black mask surrounding bill to behind eye. Yellow forehead, forecrown and rump. Pale blue bill sometimes with dark tip. Female similar except colours muted and black mask less extensive. Similar spp. All other "little green birds" on Kaua'i (Kaua'i 'Amakihi Hemignathus kauaiensis, 'Anianiau H. parvus and introduced Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus) have dark rumps. Kaua'i Nukupu'u H. lucidus hanapepe has yellowish rump, but is much larger with longer black bill. Voice Songs are lively trills that shift pitch and speed. Call a piercing, upslurred szeet. Hints Feeds almost exclusively in terminal leaf clusters of ohi'a trees (not in flowers). Can be seen on trails east of Koke'e.
Atkinson, C. T., Utzurrum, R. B., Lapointe, D. A., Camp, R. J., Crampton, L. H., Foster, J. T. and Giambelluca, T. W. 2014. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i. Global Change Biology 20: 2426-2436.
Buley, B. 2015. Preventing extinction - Project aims to save endangered bird species on Kauai. The Garden Island. Available at: http://thegardenisland.com/news/local/preventing-extinction/article_03883aee-e408-11e4-9bc6-f74ac0c81df6.html. (Accessed: 13/08/2015).
Foote, K. 2010. 48 Kaua'i Species Protected Under Endangered Species Act - News Release. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Pacific Islands External Affairs Office, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Herrmann, C. M.; Snetsinger, T. J. 1997. Pox-like lesions on endangered Puaiohi Myadestes palmeri and occurrence of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus populations near Koaie Stream. 'Elepaio 57: 73-75.
Holmer, S. 2007. Next U.S. Species to go Extinct May be Two Hawaiian Birds. American Bird Conservancy media release, http://www.abcbirds.org/newsandreports/releases/070425.html.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Lepson, J. K. 1997. 'Anianiau (Hemignathus parvus). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 312, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Lepson, J. K.; Pratt, H. D. 1997. 'Akeke'e (Loxops caerulescens). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 295, pp. 1-14. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Loope, L. L.; Medeiros, A. C. 1995. Strategies for long-term protection of biological diversity in rainforests of Haleakala National Park and East Maui, Hawaii. Endangered Species Update 12: 1-5.
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.
VanderWerf, E. A.; American Bird Conservancy. 2007. Petition to list the Akikiki or Kauai Creeper (Oreomystis bairdi) and the Akekee or Kauai Akepa (Loxops caeruleirostris) as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Wright, L & Ashpole, J
Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B., Morrey, S., Laut, M., Behnke, L., Crampton, L., Paxton, E., Vetter, J. & Pejchar, L.
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Loxops caeruleirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/05/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/05/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Critically Endangered|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Wilson, 1890)|
|Population size||310-1000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||5 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|