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The last well-documented observation of this species was in 1985, and recent searches specifically for the species have failed. It may have been driven extinct by disease spread by introduced mosquitoes. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until all areas of remaining habitat have been thoroughly searched. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
11 cm. Small, straight-billed, warbler-like passerine. Male yellow below, olive-green above, with dark lores fading into olive eye-stripe, and distinct yellow forehead and superciliary. Female greenish-grey above, pale yellowish-white below, with two prominent, pale wing-bars, pale lores and forehead, and dark eye-stripe. Similar spp. Both sexes of O'ahu `Amakihi Hemignathus flavus have dark forehead, curved bills, and no pale superciliary. Introduced Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus has bold white eye-ring. Voice Song unknown. Call a loud cherk.
Baker, P. E.; Baker, H. 2000. Kakawahie Paroroeomyza flammea and O'ahu 'Alauahio Paroreomyza maculata. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No.503, pp. 1-24. Academy of Natural Sciences & the American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia & Washington.
Berger, A. J. 1972. Hawaiian birdlife. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Bremer, D. 1986. Waipio, O'ahu, Christmas bird count. Elepaio 46: 132-135.
Jacobi, J. D.; Atkinson, C. T. 1995. Hawaii's endemic birds. In: LaRoe, E.T. (ed.), Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, pp. 376-381. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.
Lindsey, G. D.; Vanderwerf, E. A.; Baker, H.; Baker, P. 1998. Hawai'i (Hemignathus virens), Kaua'i (Hemignathus kauaiensis), O'ahu (Hemignathus chloris) and Greater 'Amakihi (Hemignathus sagittirostris). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 360, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
Olson, S. L.; James, H. F. 1982. Prodromus of the fossil avifauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C.
Olson, S. L.; James, H. F. 1982. Fossil birds from the Hawaiian Islands: evidence for wholesale extinction by man before western contact. Science 217: 633-635.
Pratt, H. D. 1993. Enjoying birds in Hawaii: a birdfinding guide to the fiftieth state. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu.
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Reynolds, M. H.; Snetsinger, T. J. 2001. The Hawai`i Rare Bird Search 1994-1996. Studies in Avian Biology 22: 133-143.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.
VanderWerf, E. A.; Cowell, A.; Rohrer, J. L. 1997. Distribution, abundance, and conservation of O'ahu 'Elepaio in the Southern Leeward Ko'olau Range. 'Elepaio 57: 99-105.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Symes, A.
Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Lepson, J., Nelson, J., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Paroreomyza maculata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/05/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/05/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Critically Endangered - Possibly Extinct|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Cabanis, 1850)|
|Population size||1-7 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||80 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|