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This species is Endangered owing to its very small, severely fragmented and contracting range, where habitat loss and degradation continues owing to feral ungulates and pigs. It may be affected by diseases carried by introduced mosquitoes and has recently disappeared from one area and is declining elsewhere.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
11 cm. Inconspicuous bark-picker with conical, very slightly downcurved bill. Adults dull grey-green, paler below with white chin and throat, pale grey bill, and dark grey mask from base of bill to behind eye. Juvenile similar but with pale face and white superciliary. Similar spp. Hawai`i `Amakihi Hemignathus virens female and juvenile similar, but throat never white, darker bill and narrower, more curved, dark lores. Voice Song a rattling, descending trill. Call an upslurred sweet. Juveniles following adults utter chatter of irregularly spaced notes whi-whit, whi-whi-whit etc. Hints Still found in most high-elevation native forests but easily overlooked. Joins mixed-species flocks in late summer and autumn.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
Stone, C. P.; Loope, L. L. 1987. Reducing negative effects of introduced animals on native biotas in Hawai'i: what is being done, what needs doing, and the role of national parks. Environmental Conservation 14: 245-258.
Anderson, S. J.; Stone, C. P. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biological Conservation 63: 195-201.
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Ralph, C. J.; Fancy, S. G. 1994. Demography and movements of the endangered Akepa and Hawaii Creeper. Wilson Bulletin 106: 615-628.
Snetsinger, T. J. 1995-1996. Observations of a Hawai'i Creeper in Mamane Forest. 'Elepaio 55: 55-56.
Jacobi, J. D.; Atkinson, C. T. 1995. Hawaii's endemic birds. In: LaRoe, E.T. (ed.), Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of US plants, animals, and ecosystems, pp. 376-381. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.
VanderWerf, E. A. 1998. Breeding biology and territoriality of the Hawaii Creeper. Condor 100: 541-545.
VanderWerf, E. A. 2001. Distribution and potential impacts of avian poxlike lesions in `Elepaio at Hakalau Forest National wildlife Refuge. Studies in Avian Biology 21: 247-253.
Gorresen, P. M.; Camp, R. J.; Pratt, T. K.; Woodworth, B. L. 2005. Status of forest birds in the Central Windward region of Hawai'I Island: population trends and power analyses.
Further web sources of information
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Lepson, J., Pratt, T., Roberts, P., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Oreomystis mana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Wilson, 1891)|
|Population size||2500-9999 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||700 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|