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The last confirmed sightings of this species were in 1995-1996 at Hanawi on Maui, with none since then despite extensive effort in a large proportion of the historic range. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until further surveys have confirmed that there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
14 cm. Medium-sized honeycreeper with strongly downcurved "heterobill" in which mandible is half the length of maxilla. Kaua`i male golden-yellow on head and breast, shading to white on belly and undertail-coverts. Crown, nape, postocular line and posterior edge of ear-coverts slightly tinged greenish, yellowish-green upper-parts. Black lores, eye-ring, and bill. Kaua'i female greenish-grey above, mostly dull white below with yellow restricted to chin, upper throat, and supraloral patch. Maui male similar except greyer dorsally, darker on crown and nape, yellower on belly and undertail. Maui female similar but duller, more dark colouring on head producing prominent yellow superciliary. Similar spp. Kauai Amakihi H. kauaiensis has paler bill, less head/back contrast, and dingier underparts. Maui Parrotbill Pseudonestor xanthophrys rather similar in plumage, but much heavier bill. Voice Song a short warble, call ke-wit, both similar to voice of Akiapolaau H. munroi of Hawai'i.
Conant, S.; Pratt, H. D.; Shallenberger, R. J. 1998. Reflections on a 1975 expedition to the lost world of the Alaka'i and other notes on the natural history, systematics, and conservation of Kaua'i birds. Wilson Bulletin 110: 1-22.
Loope, L. L.; Medeiros, A. C. 1995. Strategies for long-term protection of biological diversity in rainforests of Haleakala National Park and East Maui, Hawaii. Endangered Species Update 12: 1-5.
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Pratt, T. K.; Pyle, R. L. 1999. Nukupu'u in the twentieth century: endangered species or phantom presence?.
Pratt, T. K.; Pyle, R. L. 2000. Nukupu'u in the twentieth century: endangered species or phantom presence? 'Elepaio 60: 35-41.
Reynolds, M. H.; Snetsinger, T. J. 2001. The Hawai`i Rare Bird Search 1994-1996. Studies in Avian Biology 22: 133-143.
Reynolds, M.; Snetsinger, T.; Pratt, T. 1995. Endangered birds found on Maui. Endangered Species Bulletin 20: 10-11.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
Simon, J. C.; Baker, P. E.; Baker, H. 1997. Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 311, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Isherwood, I., Khwaja, N., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Derhé, M.
Baker, H., Baker, P., Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B. & Morin, M.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Hemignathus lucidus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
|Current IUCN Red List category||Critically Endangered - Possibly Extinct|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||Lichtenstein, 1839|
|Population size||1-49 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||22 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|