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This species has not been recorded with certainty on Kaua'i since 1989 nor on Hawai'i since 1987, and recent searches specifically for it have failed. It may have been driven extinct by habitat loss, introduced rats, and in particular from malaria from introduced mosquitoes. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until all potential areas have been surveyed, particularly in Ka'u, Waiakea, and Pu'u Maka'ala, and recent unconfirmed reports have been followed up by systematic searches. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
17 cm. Chunky finch with thick bill strongly hooked at tip. Male olive-green with sharply defined yellow head and white undertail-coverts. Female olive-green above and below, greyer on throat and upper breast. Bill pink in both sexes. Voice Song long, loud and complex with whistles, trills, and warbles. Call an upslurred or downslurred whistle, very far-carrying.
Anderson, S. J.; Stone, C. P. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biological Conservation 63: 195-201.
Conant, S.; Pratt, H. D.; Shallenberger, R. J. 1998. Reflections on a 1975 expedition to the lost world of the Alaka'i and other notes on the natural history, systematics, and conservation of Kaua'i birds. Wilson Bulletin 110: 1-22.
Pratt, H. D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.
Scott, J. M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F. L.; Kepler, C. B. 1986. Forest bird communties of the Hawaiian Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.
Snetsinger, T. J.; Reynolds, M. H.; Herrmann, C. M. 1998. 'O'u (Psittirostra psittacea) and Lana'i Hookbill (Dysmorodrepanis munroi). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 335-336, pp. 1-20. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Symes, A.
Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Pratt, T., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B., Lepson, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Psittirostra psittacea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/07/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/07/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Critically Endangered - Possibly Extinct|
|Family||Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)|
|Species name author||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Population size||1-49 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||180 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|