This species is listed as Endangered as it occurs at only one locality and has a very small range, within which the quality of habitat is thought to be decreasing due the spread of invasive plant species. However, should the population continue to be stable or increase thanks to successful conservation action and despite the spread of invasives, the species may warrant further downlisting in the future.
Ramos, J. A. 1993. Status and ecology of the Priolo or Azores Bullfinch. Thesis. Ph.D., Oxford, UK:University of Oxford.
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into P. pyrrhula and P. murina following Ramos (1993) contra AERC TAC (2003).
Distribution and populationPyrrhula murina
17 cm. Medium-sized, plump, short-winged, long-tailed, dull coloured finch. Black cap and facial area, tail and wings. Grey lesser covert and greater covert wing-bar. Brown back. Grey nape and uppertail-coverts. Pinkish-brown underparts. Some males appear to have slight reddish-tawny underparts, but this is often difficult to see. Voice Plaintive phew contact call.
is endemic to the Azores, Portugal
, where it is confined to the east of the island of São Miguel. It was locally abundant in the 19th century, when it was regarded as a pest of fruit orchards, but became rare after 1920 as a result of forest clearance and hunting. It was previously thought that the species was almost entirely confined to c.6 km2
of native forest on the slopes around Pico da Vara. However, a more complete survey in 2008 revealed that the species occupies only 83km2
, with an estimated extent of occurrence of 144 km2
(Ceia et al.
2011a). Estimates based on annual point count surveys between 2002 and 2005 range between 203 and 331 individuals (Ramos et al
, whereas analysis of ringed birds between 2005 and 2008 gives a total population estimate of 1,608 ± 326 mature individuals (Monticelli et al.
2010), and a study using distance-sampling methods in 2008 gave an estimate of 1,064 ± 304 individuals (Ceia et al.
Based on the probability of re-sighting ringed birds and observations between 2006-2008 the population has been estimated at 1,608 ± 326 mature individuals, or c.800 pairs, roughly corresponding with a 2008 estimate of 1,064 ± 304 individuals obtained through distance-sampling methods and range size analysis, thus a population of c.1,300 individuals is estimated, roughly equivalent to 860-870 mature individuals.Trend justification
Annual census figures from 2002-2008 indicate that although there is some fluctuation the population is not currently declining (BirdLife International 2009) and there is evidence of recent population recovery (Ceia et al.
2011a). An annual survival rate was recently estimated at 0.62 which may have substantially contributed to the recent recovery of the population (Monticelli et al.
This species appears to depend on the native laurissilva forest during the winter and spring , although seeds from the exotic Clethra arborea
may be a critical food in December-January (Ceia et al.
). In the summer and autumn (May-November) its habitat use is more conservative, and birds utilise bare ground, vegetation less than two metres high and also forest margins. Exotic vegetation such as plantations of Japanese red cedar Cryptomeria japonica
within 200 m of native forest are also used during summer (Ceia et al.
2009). The diet comprises of at least 37 different plants of which 13 are known to be important (Ramos 1995). The species appears entirely dependent on native forest for food during many months of the year (Ramos 1995, Ceia et al.
2011b). Movements of up to 5.8 km between native forest patches have been recorded as birds move to feed on ripening seeds (Ceia 2008). Birds breed from mid-June to late August, with a clutch size of 3 eggs (Teodósio et al.
The historical decline and its extremely small range are believed to be a consequence of the widespread clearance of native forest for forestry plantations and agriculture. The spread of alien invasive plant species (especially Hedychium gardnerianum
, Clethra arborea
and Pittosporum undulatum
), which have largely overrun the remaining patches of natural vegetation, suppress the natural fruit, seed and bud food supply to the species (G. Hilton in litt
. The species exhibits a preference for non-invaded laurel forest habitat (Ceia et al.
2011), and is entirely absent from highly invaded areas (e.g. P. undulatum
copses; Ceia et al.
2009). Food shortages are potentially a problem throughout the year, but are most severe in late winter (Ceia et al.
2011b). Random environmental and demographic factors can affect such small populations and inbreeding may reduce reproductive output. Predation by introduced rats and mustelids may also be affecting nesting success (G. Hilton in litt
. 2006; Ceia 2008; Teodósio et al.
2009).Conservation actions underway
The species is protected under Portuguese law. Pico da Vara/Ribeira do Guilherme has been designated as a Special Protected Area, and this was enlarged to 6,067 ha in 2005 (LIFE Priolo Project 2007). Ecological research was conducted during 1991-1993 and habitat management began in 1995. A short booklet on the species has been distributed to schools in São Miguel. A species action plan was published in 1996, and a second action plan was produced in 2009 (Teodósio et al.
2009). A number of actions have already been implemented as part of an ongoing EU LIFE-Nature project for the species, including the development of a management plan for the SPA, the clearance of invasive plant species and replanting with native species in over 70 ha in the core of the species's range and the planting of traditional fruit trees at lower altitudes (LIFE Priolo Project 2007; Teodósio 2005;
Teodósio 2006). During 2005-2007, 156 individuals were captured and colour-ringed (Ceia 2008), and 'visual recapture' monitoring of these birds continues (SPEA 2009). As part of the BirdLife International Preventing Extinctions programme Species Guardian SPEA (Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves) are implementing the following actions (SPEA 2009): habitat management including the creation of fruit tree orchards, clearance of alien invasive plant species and planting native species in the core area and buffer zones; raising public awareness through production of a website, CD-ROM, brochures and school kits, and through collaboration with the regional Ministry of Tourism on nature trails and tourist information; evaluating the economic benefits of the project and analysing the ecosystem services offered by the protected area; establishing an interactive Environmental Interpretation Centre with displays about the species, native laurel forest and the threats both face; and researching and monitoring population size, distribution and habitat quality. The first complete census took place in 2008, involving 48 volunteers surveying all suitable habitat in a single day (SPEA2009). The São Miguel Natural Park, including Pico de Vara SPA, was classified in July 2008, and a management plan is to be developed by the regional government. In September 2006, recently fledged juveniles were seen at Salto do Cavalo (R. Ceia in litt
. 2012). Conservation actions proposed
Continue and expand the population monitoring scheme. Investigate the possibility of breeding at Salto do Cavalo. Continue the removal and exclusion of exotic flora. Continue the replanting of native vegetation (particularly key food plants). Monitor the species's response to ongoing habitat restoration. Promote land use changes in the buffer areas around the SPA. Investigate the impact of rat predation on nesting success.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Ramos, J. 1995. The diet of the Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina and floristic variation within its range. Biological Conservation 71: 237-249.
Ramos, J. A. 1996. Action plan for the Azores Bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 347-352. Council of Europe and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.
LIFE Priolo Project. 2007. Priolo: an endangered species, a threatened habitat.
Teodósio, J. 2005. O Priolo e a Flor de Laranjeira. Pardela 24: 8-9.
Teodósio, J. 2006. Monitorização uma ferramenta essencial. Pardela: 8-9.
Ramos, J.; Farragola, A. J.; Hilton, G. 2005. Priolo census data analysis 1991-2005: preliminary report on action F6 of Project LIFE/Priolo, LIFE NAT/P/000013.
SPEA. 2009. Species Guardian Action Update February 2009: Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina 1st Progress report. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/extinction/pdfs/Azores_Bullfinch_Guardian_update_Feb09.pdf.
Ceia, R.; Heleno, R.; Ramos, J. A. 2009. Summer abundance and ecological distribution of passerines in native and exotic forests in São Miguel, Azores. Ardeola 56(1): 25-39.
Teodósio J.; Ceia, R.; Costa, L. 2009. Species Action Plan for the Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina in the European Union. 19. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/wildbirds/action_plans/docs/pyrrhula_murina.pdf.
BirdLife International. 2009. Species factsheet: Pyrrhula murina. . Available at: http://www.birdlife.org.
Ceia, R.S., Sampaio, H.L., Parejo, S.H., Heleno, R.H., Arosa, M.L., Ramos, J.A. and Hilton, G.M. 2011. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: does laurel forest restoration remove a critical winter food supply for the critically endangered Azores bullfinch? Biological Invasions 13: 93-104.
Ceia, R. 2008. Monitorização da população de Priolo. Relatório da acção F6 do Projecto LIFE Priolo. Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves, Lisboa.
Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.
Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Species Guardian Action Update
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Peet, N., Pople, R., Symes, A.
Ceia, R., Hilton, G., Ramos, J., Teodósio, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Pyrrhula murina. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species