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Coppery-chested Jacamar Galbula pastazae

Justification
This species is uncommon, and its localised subpopulations are each suspected to be very small, and to form a small total population which is sustaining continuing declines at a rate similar to the alarming pace of forest destruction. It is therefore considered Vulnerable, but data are lacking and its population could be larger than is currently estimated.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
23 cm. Metallic green, slender and long-tailed bird. Long black bill. Prominent yellowish-orange eye-ring. Metallic green upperparts, throat and breast, with bluish sheen to crown. White chin spot. Coppery-rufous belly and underside of tail. Female has dark rufous throat, bronzy-green upper chest. Dark rufous lower underparts. Eye-ring less prominent. Similar spp. Male White-chinned Jacamar G. tombacea lacks bluish sheen to crown, dark rufous throat and prominent eye-ring. Female lacks dark rufous underparts (not pale ochraceous-cinnamon). Voice Unknown.

Distribution and population
Galbula pastazae occurs in the foothills and subtropical zone of the Andean east slope in Ecuador (Napo, Tungurahua, Morona-Santiago, Zamora-Chinchipe, Loja) (Ridgely et al. 1998), two adjacent east-slope valleys in Colombia (Putumayo [P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999] and Nariño), and the Cordillera del Cóndor in Peru (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Except in Podocarpus National Park, Loja, where it is described as fairly common, the species is generally uncommon (Poulsen and Wege 1994, Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997, Ridgely et al. 1998) and local, and presumably declining as a result of habitat loss.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 40.4-42.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (19 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
Its main habitat is humid lower montane forest, where it seems to prefer forest edge and second growth near primary forest at 600-1,700 m altitude, generally between 900 and 1,300 m. A specimen from Ambato, Tungurahua, at c.2,600 m is surely mislabelled (R. S. Ridgely in litt. 2000). Nests with young have been found in December, in holes in earthbanks.

Threats
The lower slopes of the eastern Andes in Ecuador at c.1,000-2,500 are seriously affected by clearance for small-scale agriculture, and for tea and coffee plantations, with forest disappearing at an alarming rate. In Colombia, however, c.80% of this forest remains, and the climate and terrain are unsuited to coffee- or tea-growing. Proposals to build a new Ipiales-Orito road, partly to facilitate exploitation of the heavily forested Guamués and Sucio valleys (Putumayo and Nariño) (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999), represent a further threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Podocarpus National Park (which may protect quite a large population) and Cayambe Coca and Antisana Ecological Reserves (San Rafael and Cordillera de Guacamayos areas respectively). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further field surveys in forests of the Andean east slope (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997) to find new localities and provide population estimates. Designate a protected area in the Cordillera del Cóndor, and involve local people in the land-use management of this region (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Create other protected areas in the lower montane forest within the species's range.

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References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Poulsen, M. K.; Wege, D. 1994. Coppery-chested Jacamar Galbula pastazae. Cotinga: 60-62.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J.; Guerrero, M. 1998. An annotated list of the birds of mainland Ecuador. Fundación Ornitológica del Ecuador, CECIA, Quito.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Awbrey, K. 1997. The Cordillera del Cóndor region of Ecuador and Peru: a biological assessment. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Ridgely, R., Salaman, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Galbula pastazae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Coppery-chested jacamar (Galbula pastazae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Galbulidae (Jacamars)
Species name author Taczanowski & Berlepsch, 1885
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 21,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species