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Lemon-breasted Seedeater Serinus citrinipectus

Justification
Although this species may have a restricted range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
This species is found in southern Malawi, south-east Zimbabwe, and southern Mozambique to Zululand and northern Natal, South Africa. It has also been recorded in Zambia.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as local and uncommon within its limited range, although occasionally abundant (Clement 1999).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in overall decline owing to pressures on the palms with which it is strongly tied, plus trapping for the cagebird trade (Fry et al. 2004). However populations are likely to have increased in some locations, such as the deforested Shire Valley in Malawi since it is adaptable to a wide variety of grassland habitats (F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. Dowsett in litt. 2005).

Ecology
The species is found in lowland palm savannas, clearings in dry woodland, Brachystegia scrub, grassland, gardens, road verges and edges of cultivation, invariably below 750 m. It is gregarious and often forms flocks with Yellow-fronted Canary S. mozambicus, and in the non-breeding season nomadic flocks move at random in search of feeding areas of flowering grasses. It is strongly associated with Ilala palms Hyphaene natalensis over most of its range.

Threats
At least 2,000 individuals are exported from the population in south Mozambique annually (Parker 1999). The Ilala palms Hyphaene natalensis, with which the species is associated, are commonly used in furniture manufacture, at least in Zimbabwe (Fry and Keith 2004).

References
Clement, P.; Harris, A.; Davis, J. 1993. Finches and sparrows: an identification guide. Christopher Helm, London.

Clement, P.; Harris, A.; Davis, J. 1999. Finches and sparrows. Christopher Helm, London.

Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 2004. The birds of Africa vol. VII. Christopher Helm, London.

Parker, V. 1999. The atlas of the birds of Sul do Save, southern Mozambique. Avian Demography Unit and Endangered Wildlife Trust., Cape Town and Johannesburg.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Pilgrim, J., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Fisher, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Serinus citrinipectus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Fringillidae (Finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers)
Species name author Clancey & Lawson, 1960
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 49,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change