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White-browed Guan Penelope jacucaca

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because intensifying threats are suspected to have led to rapid population declines, and the species has already been extirpated from some sites.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
65-70 cm. Medium-sized, blackish-brown cracid with a striking white supercilium. Prominent elongated white streaks in the upperwing. Pale legs. Similar spp. None in range. Voice Unknown.

Distribution and population
Penelope jacucaca is a caatinga endemic confined to Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia and north-east Minas Gerais, north-east Brazil (Sick 1993, G. M Kirwan in litt. 2000). There are apparently three distinct subpopulations: south of the rio São Francisco; north-east of the rio São Francisco; and south-east Piauí to west Ceará (Sick 1993). There are recent records from north-western Minas Gerais (Mocambinho [Kirwan et al. 2001], Jatobá [Kirwan et al. 2004], Lagoa dos Patos [de Vasconcelos 2006]), Bahia (Raso da Catarina Ecological Station [P. Lima in litt. 2003], Curaçá [Freitas and Barros 2002], Chapada Diamantina [Parrini et al. 1999]) and southern Piauí (Serra de Uruçuí [Santos (2001a], Serra da Capivara National Park [Olmos 1993], Serra das Confusões National Park [L. F. Silveira in litt. 2003], Sete Cidades National Park [Santos 2001b], Parque Ambiental de Teresina [Rodrigues and Santos 2001]), Pernambuco (Serra Negra Biological Reserve [Roda and Carlos 2004], Mauricio Dantas Private Reserve [Farias et al. 2001]) and Ceará (in the Itapagé municipality [P. Develey in litt. 2007] and Serra de Baturité [Roberto Otoch per D. Willis in litt. 2009]). There are no recent records from near coastal areas of Alagoas or Paraíba, as claimed in the past, and the species is considered extinct there.

Population justification
Delacour & Amadon (2004) estimated the population size to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, thus the population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded to 3,500-15,000 individuals here.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of hunting pressure and habitat degradation.

Ecology
It is a poorly known and scarce resident of dry, lowland stunted forest and caatinga (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Sick 1993).

Threats
North-eastern Brazil is the poorest region in the country and has a strong hunting culture. This large and attractive species is considered either locally extinct or very rare over much of its distribution and is under intensive pressure from hunting even in "protected" areas. Additionally, both Raso da Catarina and Serra Negra are intensively exploited by Indian groups, who have also cut much of the latter forest (Santos 2001b). Degradation of dry forests and arboreal caatinga, apparently its favoured habitats, has also been intensive.

Conservation Actions Underway
Recent records from a number of protected areas including Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia), Serra da Capivara National Park (Piauí), Serra das Confusões National Park, Sete Cidades National Park, Parque Ambiental de Teresina and Pernambuco (Serra Negra Biological Reserve [Roda and Carlos 2004], Mauricio Dantas Private Reserve). In Ceará state it has recently been found at a site in Itapagé municipality where a private reserve is being created (P. Develey in litt. 2007). An action plan being developed by IBAMA for Cracidae will include this species. Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the population size. Conduct research into the extent and level of hunting pressure on the species. Develop and implement an action plan for the species and its habitat. Improve de facto protection of protected areas within its range. Initiate local awareness campaigns to combat hunting in protected areas.

References
De Vasconcelos, M.F., D'Angelo Neto, S., Kirwan, G.M., Bornschein, M.R., Guimaraes Diniz, M. and Da Silva, J.F. 2006. Important ornithological records from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126(3): 212-238.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delacour, J.; Amadon, D. 2004. Curassows and related birds. Lynx Edicions & American Museum of Natural History, Barcelona & New York.

Farias, G. B.; Brito, M. T.; Pacheco, G. L. 2001. Levantamento de aves da RPPN Mauricio Dantas, Betônia/Floresta (Pernambucco). Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 202-203.

Freitas, M. A.; Barros, Y. M. 2002. Ornitofauna de Curaçá (Pátria da Ararinha Azul) riqueza e diversidade na caatinga da regiao norte da Bahia. Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 150-152.

Kirwan, G. M.; Barnett, J. M.; Minns, J. 2001. Significant ornithological observations from the rio Sao Francisco valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on conservation and biogeography. Ararajuba 9(2): 145-161.

Kirwan, G.M.; Barnett, J.M.; Vasconcelos, M. F. de; Raposo, M. A.; D'Angelo Neto, S.; Roesler, I. 2004. Further comments on the avifauna of the middle Sao Francisco valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 207-220.

Olmos, F. 1993. Birds of Serra da Capivara National Park in the "caatinga" of north-eastern Brazil. Bird Conservation International 3: 21-36.

Parrini, R.; Raposo, M. A.; Pacheco, J. F.; Carvalhaes, A. M. P.; Melo, T. A. J.; Fonseca, P. S. M.; Minns, J. C. 1999. Birds of the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Cotinga 11: 86-95.

Roda, S. A.; Carlos, C. J. 2004. Composiçao e sensitividade da avifauna dos brejos de altitude do estado de Pernambuco. In: Porto, K.C.; Cabral, J.J.P.; Tabarelli, M. (ed.), Brejos de Altitude: história natural, ecologia e conservaçao, pp. 211-218. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasílla.

Rodrigues, E. B.; Santos. MPD. 2001. Levantamento da ornitofauna do Parque Ambiental de Teresina, Piauí. Resumos do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 230-231.

Santos, M. P. D. 2001. Avifauna da Serra de Uruçui, Piauí. Resumos do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 237-238.

Santos, M. P. D. 2001. Avifauna Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, Piauí. Resumos do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 238-239.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Strahl, S.; Ellis, S.; Byers, O.; Plasse, C. 1994. Conservation assessment and management plan for Neotropical guans, curassows, and chachalacas. International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources, Apple Valley, USA.

Text account compilers
Symes, A., Benstead, P., Keane, A., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Develey, P., Kirwan, G., Lima, P., Olmos, F., Silveira, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Penelope jacucaca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-browed guan (Penelope jacucaca) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Cracidae (Guans and curassows)
Species name author Spix, 1825
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 620,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species