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LC
Black-billed Mountain-toucan Andigena nigrirostris

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
This species occurs in Colombia on both slopes of the West (south to Cauca), Central (head of the Magdalena valley in Huila and east slope in Putumayo and Nariño) and East (south to Cundinamarca and west Caquetá) Andes; in north-east Ecuador (Napo) on the east slope of the Andes; and in north-west Venezuela (Trujillo and Táchira) (Hilty and Brown 1986, Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Ecology
The species is relatively common in montane evergreen forest and forest edge at 1,600-3,200 m, and to 1,200 m on the Pacific slope and east slope of the East Andes (Hilty and Brown 1986, Stotz et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is becoming increasingly local owing to habitat destruction (Stotz et al. 1996). Unplanned colonisation following the completion of roads and massive logging concessions have cleared or degraded many of its Chocó forests, and deforestation is accelerating (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Stattersfield et al. 1998); a long history of human colonisation on inter-Andean slopes has left only remnant forest patches, pasture and plantations (Wege and Long 1995); and extensive degradation in the East Andes has largely cleared west slopes for intensive crop cultivation and pasture (Stattersfield et al. 1998).

References
Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Andigena nigrirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Ramphastidae (Toucans)
Species name author (Waterhouse, 1839)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 110,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species