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Grey-breasted Mountain-toucan Andigena hypoglauca

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Distribution and population
Andigena hypoglauca occurs primarily on the east slope of the Andes, from Nariño, south Colombia, through Ecuador south to Cuzco, south-east Peru. On the west slope of the Andes it occurs in Caldas and Cauca, Colombia, and Azuay and Loja, south-west Ecuador (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990; Hilty and Brown 1986).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It occurs in montane evergreen forest, forest edge and stunted forest near the tree-line at 2,300-3,500 m, occasionally to 1,500 m (Hilty and Brown 1986; Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990; Parker et al. 1996; Ridgely and Greenfield 2001; Schulenberg et al. 2007).

Threats
Its habitat in Colombia has been subject to widespread and severe deforestation over a prolonged period as a result of agricultural expansion (Stattersfield et al. 1998), whereas the east Andes of Ecuador and north Peru are under intense pressure from conversion for agriculture and cattle pasture, mining operations and logging (Dinerstein et al. 1995). In Peru, there is an alarmingly high rate of deforestation in the north Cordillera de Colán for the cultivation of cash crops (Barnes et al. 1995), and widespread forest loss on montane slopes in the Marañón drainage (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Montane forests in south-east Peru are perhaps the most intact within its range, but even these have been locally affected by domestic grazing animals, burning, cutting for fuel and clearance for cultivation (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).

Conservation Actions Underway
Occurs in several protected areas including Las Cajas National Recreation Area and Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador. Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect and manage protected areas where the species occurs. Monitor population at strongholds and search for the species in potentially suitable habitat at new sites. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in fragmented populations and in degraded and fragmented habitats. Use GIS habitat loss data to produce estimate of declines.

References
Barnes, R.; Butchart, S.; Clay, R.; Davies, C.; Seddon, N. 1995. The conservation status of the Cordillera de Colán, northern Peru. Cotinga: 6-7.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Andigena hypoglauca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Grey-breasted mountain toucan (Andigena hypoglauca) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Ramphastidae (Toucans and barbets)
Species name author (Gould, 1833)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 122,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species