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Saffron Toucanet Pteroglossus bailloni
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be undergoing moderately rapid population declines owing to habitat loss, hunting and capture for the illegal cagebird trade.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

Baillonius bailloni BirdLife International (2004), Baillonius bailloni Stotz et al. (1996), Baillonius bailloni Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Distribution and population
Baillonius bailloni occurs in south-east Brazil, east Paraguay and north-east Argentina. In Brazil, it is most common in montane regions (up to 1,550 m) of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul, but also occurs in Pernambuco, and has been re-introduced into ex-Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro (Sick 1993, Parker et al. 1996). It is apparently less common in Argentina (Canevari et al. 1991) and Paraguay, where it is probably most numerous in south-east Paraguay (Lowen et al. 1996). A recent survey of 24 forest fragments in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, only found the species in the largest fragment (Paranapiacaba, 1,400 km2). Surveys showed that the encounter rate at this site had declined by 47.5% between 1987-1991 and 1998 (Guix et al. 2000), but in Argentina it remains locally fairly common in Misiones (M. Pearman in litt. 2003, N. Rey in litt. 2004). It is less conspicuous than other toucans in the same region, and may be more easily overlooked.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, hunting and capture for the cage-bird trade.

It occurs in lowland and montane Atlantic forests, generally on slopes and beside streams, and in in Mantiqueira, Brazil it persists in second growth and forest remnants of c.3,000 ha (F. Olmos in litt. 2003).

There is an illegal cage-bird trade, hunting and significant habitat loss (Brooks et al. 1993, Chebez 1994). Montane forests have suffered less destruction than adjacent lowland forest in Brazil, but isolated forests in the north of its range have been reduced by the expansion of pasture and cultivation, and fires spreading from cultivated areas. Cage-bird trade and hunting are apparently minimal in Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003, N. Rey in litt. 2004) but it is still hunted in Paraguay.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES II. It occurs in a number of protected areas including Itatiaia and Foç do Iguaçu National Parks, Brazil; Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú and Estancia San Antonio, La Golondrina and Estancia Itabó Private Nature Reserves, Paraguay; and Iguazú National Park, Argentina.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Enforce law to prevent capture for the illegal cage-bird trade. Develop awareness-raising campaigns in areas where hunting is a particular threat. Effectively protect national parks where species occurs. Study its ecological requirements.

Brooks, T. M.; Barnes, R.; Bartrina, L.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Clay, R. P.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Etcheverry, N. I.; Lowen, J. C.; Vincent, J. 1993. Bird surveys and conservation in the Paraguayan Atlantic forest: Project CANOPY '92 final report. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Canevari, M. 1991. Nueva guia de las aves Argentinas. Fundación Acindar, Buenos Aires.

Chebez, J. C. 1994. Los que se van: especies argentinas en peligro. Albatros, Buenos Aires.

Guix, J. C.; Martín, M.; Hernández, A.; Souza, F. L. 2000. Conservation status of the saffron Toucanet (Baillonius bailloni, Ramphastidae): a new case of population isolation and depletion in South America. Grupo de Estudos Ecologicos, Serie Documentos 6(2): 10-25.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Mansur, E., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Clay, R., Olmos, F., Pearman, M., Rey, N.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Pteroglossus bailloni. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Saffron toucanet (Pteroglossus bailloni) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Ramphastidae (Toucans)
Species name author (Vieillot, 1819)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 654,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species