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Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2011 Vulnerable
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,600 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -
Population justification: Recent surveys suggest that the species occurs at a density of c.0.1 birds/ha in suitable, protected habitat, and that the total area of montane grassland in its range may be only 400 km2 , not all of which will be suitable for the species (U. J. Vinod in litt. 2010). Assuming that the majority of birds recorded in the surveys were breeding adults, these data imply that an optimistic population estimate would be c.4,000 mature individuals. However, given the uncertainty around these numbers, the population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Trend justification: This species is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss, degradation and disturbance.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
India Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
India Avalanche (Nilgiri) site factsheet
India Berijam (Kodaikanal) site factsheet
India Bison Swamp (Nilgiri) site factsheet
India Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Eravikulam National Park site factsheet
India Grass Hills site factsheet
India Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India INS - Shivaji and adjoining areas, Lonavla site factsheet
India Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Kulahupuzha Reserved Forest site factsheet
India Mukurthi National Park (Nilgiris) site factsheet
India Muthukuzhi site factsheet
India Nelliyampathy (Nemmara Division) site factsheet
India Nilgiri-Naduvattam (Naduvattam IBA) site factsheet
India Peechi - Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Poomparai and Kukkal site factsheet
India Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Shola around Kodaikanal site factsheet
India Silent Valley National Park site factsheet
India Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Thaishola site factsheet
India Vazhachal Forest Division site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Altitude 1000 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Small-holder plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anthus nilghiriensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Motacillidae (Wagtails and pipits)
Species name author Sharpe, 1885
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 11,600 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species