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 Pteroglossus bitorquatus

This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

Taxonomic note
Pteroglossus bitorquatus and P. sturmii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. bitorquatus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

36 cm. Small, colourful toucan. Green and yellow with a red rump, red nape and upper back, and a broad red chest patch.

Distribution and population
Pteroglossus bitorquatus occurs in east-central South America, restricted to the area south of the Amazon. Subspecies sturmii has a distribution bounded by Rio Madeira and Rio Tapajós, Brazil, to the west and east respectively, and ranges south as far as the states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso. It reaches Bolivia, where it is present in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park. Subspecies reichenowi occurs in Brazil between Rio Tapajós and Rio Tocantins, south as far as north Mato Grosso. The nominate subspecies bitorquatus is also limited to Brazil, with a range encompassing Marajó Island and the area between Rio Tocantins in the west, and Maranhão in the east (del Hoyo et al. 2002).

This species inhabits moist tropical forest, gallery forest and some "cerrado" (dry savanna woodland) up to c.550 m, and appears to show some tolerance of secondary habitat (del Hoyo et al. 2002).

Although the species shows some tolerance of habitat fragmentation and degradation, the extent of projected deforestation in its known range is sufficient to pose a threat (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Lees, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Pteroglossus bitorquatus. Downloaded from on 03/07/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/07/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Not Recognised
Family Ramphastidae (Toucans)
Species name author Vigors, 1826