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Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis
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Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small range, within which the total area of its forest habitat is declining owing to clearance for cultivation and intensive charcoal production. Furthermore, the remaining habitat is becoming more fragmented, and the quality of habitat at most sites is declining owing to logging and pole-cutting.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
12 cm. Small pipit of East African coastal forest and woodland mosaic habitats. Drab brown, heavily streaked upperparts. Creamy-white underparts, heavily overlaid with bold, black streaking, especially on breast. Pale flesh, almost white legs. Similar spp. No other pipit in its habitat. Voice Very obvious sweer or tsseeer call note.

Distribution and population
Anthus sokokensis has been recorded from several sites along the East African coast in Kenya (Bennun and Njoroge 1999, Waiyaki and Bennun 1999, Mlingwa et al. 2000) and Tanzania (Mlingwa 1996), but is extremely rare (and may even be extinct) at some of these. In Kenya, Arabuko-Sokoke Forest has been estimated to support c.13,000 individuals (Musila et al. 2001).

Population justification
In Kenya, Arabuko-Sokoke Forest has been estimated to support c.13,000 individuals. There are no estimates for Tanzanian populations, but the sites where the bird occurs are small, and most are very heavily degraded (N. Burgess in litt. 2007). The total population is therefore placed in the range band for 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of the species's forest habitat, mainly through charcoal burning, agricultural encroachment, logging and pole cutting. The likely rate of decline has not been estimated.

Ecology
In Arabuko-Sokoke, it occurs in Brachystegia forest, unevenly and at low densities in disturbed (logged-over) habitat (0.9 birds/ha), but evenly and at high densities in dense, undisturbed forest (2.8 birds/ha) (Mlingwa 1996, Musila et al. 2000). The species in general is highly sensitive to disturbance (Musila et al. 2001). All records from the Pugu Hills are from the edge of thickets (Mlingwa 1996), but at Zaraninge it was found on open forest floor in mature forest (Burgess et al. 1991). It lives mainly on the forest floor, preferring areas with bare ground, high litter-cover, and high densities of ants and termite mounds (Musila et al. 2000), feeding among sparse grass on insects, including termites and beetles (Keith et al. 1992).

Threats
One site, Dakatcha Woodland, is being damaged by cutting of Brachylaena trees (in great demand for fuelwood and carving timber) and by extensive clearing of the hilltops for the cultivation of pineapples (Bennun and Njoroge 1999). It is particularly threatened because it has no formal conservation status (Bennun and Njoroge 1999). Arabuko-Sokoke is suffering continued forest damage from both illegal logging and licensed wood removal. There is also some political pressure for degazettement of the Kararacha-Mpendakula section of the forest, which contains prime habitat for the species (Waiyaki and Bennun 1999). Its habitat faces similar threats at other sites: breakdown of traditional systems of conservation, encroachment, selective logging, pole-cutting and elephant damage (Waiyaki and Bennun 1999). There is no forest remaining at Vikindu Forest Reserve owing to intensive charcoal burning and cutting, with only low thicket left (N. Burgess in litt. 2012). There is very little forest remaining in the Pugu-Kazimzumbwe forest due to intensive charcoal burning and cutting for building materials (N. Burgess in litt. 2007), with Ruvu South Forest Reserve now similarly affected (N. Burgess in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Underway
Arabuko-Sokoke is the focus of a project to promote long-term conservation of the forest through sustainable management and community participation in forest conservation (Fanshawe 1997). The bulk of Kiono/Zaraninge forest is included within the Sadaani National Park in Tanzania, and is now well protected (N. Burgess in litt. 2007). Another site, Kaya Gandini, is among the coastal "kaya" (sacred) forests targeted by the Coast Forest Conservation Unit (National Museums of Kenya/WWF). This project encourages local communities to re-establish effective national control over forest resources. Pugu Hills and Ruvu South are also subject to ongoing conservation projects through local NGOs, although forest loss continues (N. Burgess in litt. 2012).Conservation Actions Proposed
Census and monitor the population sizes at different sites (Waiyaki and Bennun 1999). Study its response to forest alteration (Brachylaena removal, etc.). Continue to press for Dakatcha Woodland to be gazetted as a Forest Reserve or area of equivalent protected status (Waiyaki and Bennun 1999). Survey Ruvu South Forest Reserve (Tanzania) for the presence of the species (Waiyaki and Bennun 1999).

References
Bennun, L.; Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Nature Kenya, Nairobi.

Burgess, N. D.; Cutts, C. J.; Huxham, M. 1991. New records of the Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis from Kiono Forest Reserve, Bagamoyo District, northeastern Tanzania. Scopus 15: 56-57.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Fanshawe, J. 1997. Second Annual Report of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Management and Conservation Project to the European Commission.

Keith, S.; Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H. 1992. The birds of Africa vol. IV. Academic Press, London.

Mlingwa, C. O. F. 1996. A note on the rediscovery of the Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis in the Pugu Hills, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 6: 293-294.

Mlingwa, C. O. F.; Waiyaki, E. M.; Bennun, L. A.; Burgess, N. D. 2000. Birds. In: Burgess, N.D.; Clarke, G.P. (ed.), Coastal forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 149-171. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Musila, F.; Bennun, L. A.; Karanja, W. 2001. The Sokoke Pipit, Anthus sokokensis, in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya: population estimates and response to habitat disturbance. Ostrich: 198.

Musila, F.; Bennun, L.; Karanja, W. 2000. The Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya: population estimates and response to habitat disturbance.

Waiyaki, E. M.; Bennun, L. A. 1999. The avifauna of coastal forests in southern Kenya: status and conservation. Ostrich 71: 247-256.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Baker, N., Burgess, N.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anthus sokokensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sokoke pipit (Anthus sokokensis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Motacillidae (Wagtails and pipits)
Species name author van Someren, 1921
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,300 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change