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Apo Sunbird Aethopyga boltoni

Justification
This species has a small range restricted both geographically and altitudinally. It is thought to be relatively stable at present within this area but careful monitoring of potential threats is required. It is therefore listed as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
This species is endemic to Mindanao, Philippines, where it is fairly common at sites including on Mt Malindang (race malindangensis), Mt Kitanglad, Mt Apo, Mt Pasian and Lake Sebu (nominate boltoni), and Mt Busa and Mt Matutum (race tibolii); this latter taxon ranging on Busa from 1,300 m upwards and on Matutum from 820 m upwards.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly common within its very small range (Cheke et al. 2001).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable, but may be declining very slowly owing to ongoing habitat degradation.

Ecology
It generally occurs in flowering trees and shrubs in stunted (and mossy) forest above 1,500 m. It has been recorded breeding in January-July.

Threats
Although its area of occupancy must be very small, its habitat is apparently fairly secure.

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine whether habitat loss poses any threat within its altitudinal range. Survey to quantify the population size. Grant protection to areas of suitable habitat to safeguard against future threats.

References
Cheke, R. A.; Mann, C. F.; Allen, R. 2001. Sunbirds: a guide to the sunbirds, flowerpeckers, spiderhunters and sugarbirds of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aethopyga boltoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Apo sunbird (Aethopyga boltoni) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds)
Species name author Mearns, 1905
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species